Holy Roman Empire
the revival of the old Roman Empire, based mainly in Germany and northern Italy, that endured from 870 to 1806
Diet of Worms
The meeting of representatives (diet) of the Holy Roman Empire presided over by Emperor Charles V at German city of Worms in 1521 at which Martin Luther was ordered to recant his ninety-five theses. Luther refused and was declared outlaw although he was protected by the Elector of Saxony and other German princes
the sixteenth-century reform movement in the Roman Catholic Church in response to the Protestant Reformation
the sixteenth-century religious movement that sought to reform the Roman Catholic Church and led to the establishment of Protestantism
remission of the temporal penalty of punishment in purgatory that remained after sins had been forgiven
the doctrine that the entire substances of the bread and wine are changed in the Eucharist into the body and blood of Christ
Hundred Years' War
France and England; at first, England was winning, but then Joan of Arc turned things around, even though she wound up being executed
Five major elements of the Catholic Reformation...
doctrine, ecclestiastical or structural reconfiguration, religious orders, spiritual movements, political dimensions
Results of the Black Death...
1/3 of Europe dies, The Church lose power and money, people lose faith, lack of workers, peasants have no jobs so they revolt against the nobles
used by the English during the Hundred Years' War; provided an accurate shot, which greatly and easily defeated the French
Joan of Arc
caused the 15th century military revolution; "maid of Orleans;" was 17 and was executed because she said she was spoken to by God. The French handed her over despite the major turnaround that she caused. She caused the French to increase their use of artillery.
Results of the Hundred Years' War...
long bow and cannons (decrease of knights and castles)
trade increases (italy)
New inventions brought to Europe (such as gunpowder and better steel)