World History Test One:Reformation and Wars of Religion

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Test 10/13

Holy Roman Empire

the revival of the old Roman Empire, based mainly in Germany and northern Italy, that endured from 870 to 1806

Diet of Worms

The meeting of representatives (diet) of the Holy Roman Empire presided over by Emperor Charles V at German city of Worms in 1521 at which Martin Luther was ordered to recant his ninety-five theses. Luther refused and was declared outlaw although he was protected by the Elector of Saxony and other German princes

Counter-Reformation

the sixteenth-century reform movement in the Roman Catholic Church in response to the Protestant Reformation

Reformation

the sixteenth-century religious movement that sought to reform the Roman Catholic Church and led to the establishment of Protestantism

indulgences

remission of the temporal penalty of punishment in purgatory that remained after sins had been forgiven

transubstantiation

the doctrine that the entire substances of the bread and wine are changed in the Eucharist into the body and blood of Christ

Hundred Years' War

France and England; at first, England was winning, but then Joan of Arc turned things around, even though she wound up being executed

Five major elements of the Catholic Reformation...

doctrine, ecclestiastical or structural reconfiguration, religious orders, spiritual movements, political dimensions

The spreader of the Black Death...

fleas

Results of the Black Death...

1/3 of Europe dies, The Church lose power and money, people lose faith, lack of workers, peasants have no jobs so they revolt against the nobles

English Longbow

used by the English during the Hundred Years' War; provided an accurate shot, which greatly and easily defeated the French

Joan of Arc

caused the 15th century military revolution; "maid of Orleans;" was 17 and was executed because she said she was spoken to by God. The French handed her over despite the major turnaround that she caused. She caused the French to increase their use of artillery.

Results of the Hundred Years' War...

long bow and cannons (decrease of knights and castles)
trade increases (italy)
New inventions brought to Europe (such as gunpowder and better steel)
Increased productivity

End of the Hundred Years' War leads to...

end of Feudalism
Exploration
Loss of Faith in Church
Renaissance
Use of Reason
Nation-Building
national pride

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