Revenue Act of 1789
James Madison, representing Virginia in the House of Representatives, became influential in Congress. He persuaded congress to adopt the ____ ______ __ 1789, imposing a 5 percent tariff on certain imports. thus the first congress achieved an effective national tax law.
Bill of Rights
Madison opposed additional limitations on the national government and believed it unnecessary to guarantee people's rights explicitly given the government's limited powers. But he recognized that congress should respond to amendments proposed in state ratifying conventions. He introduced 19 amendments, 10 of which passes. The adoption defused Antifederalist opposition.
the Judiciary Act if 1789, Ware v. Hyton and Hyton v. the US
defined the jurisdiction of the the federal judiciary and established a 6 member Supreme Court, 13 district courts, and 3 circuit courts of appeal. Its most important provision, Section 25, allowed appeals from state to federal courts when cases raised certain constitutional questions.It presumed Article VI of the Constitution, which stated that federal statutes and treaties were "the supreme Law of the Land," implied that the right of appeal from state to federal courts, yet the Constitution did not explicitly permit such actions. In the 19 century, judges and legislators committed to states' rights would challenge Section 25's constitutionality.
In a 1796 decision _________, the Court for the first time declared a state law unconstitutional. That same year it also reviewed the constitutionality of an act of congress, upholding its validity in the case of _________.
The most important case of the decade, __________ (1793) established that states could be sued in federal courts by citizens of other states. 5 years later, the 11 amendment to the Constitution overturned that decisions.
He did not seek presidency. In 1783 he returned to Mount Vernon as a Virginia planter. he unanimous vote of the electoral college formalized that consensus. He would not ignore his country's call and headed to New York City, the nation's capital. He acted cautiously in 1789 knowing he would set future precedents. By using the heads of executive departments ad chief advisers, he created the cabinet. He also exercised his veto power over congressional legislation sparingly-only if he believed a bill was unconstitutional. For the War Department he selected Henry Knox of Massachusetts, who was his artillery general during the Revolution. For the State Department, he selected fellow Virginian Thomas Jefferson, who had been minister to France. For secretary of the treasury, Washington chose the brilliant, ambitious Alexander Hamilton.
Alexander Hamilton, Report on Public Credit, Defense of the Constitutionality of the Bank, strict constructionist v. broad constructionists, Report on Manufactures
The illegitimate son of a Scottish aristocrat and a women born in British West Indies. A devoted patriot, Hamilton volunteered for the American army, where in 1777, Washington pointed him as an aide, and they developed great mutual affection. Served as a delegate to the Annapolis Convention and the Constitutional Convention. His contributions to The Federalist in 1788 made him one of the republic's chief political thinkers. As treasury secretary and presidential adviser, Hamilton's primary loyalty lay with the nation. With no natal ties to any state, Hamilton neither sympathized with nor fully understood demands for local autonomy. (Federalist) His fiscal policies aimed at consolidating national power, and he openly favored close ties with Britain. Cynically believed people to be motivated by self interest. Congress ordered him to assess the public debt. The country's war debts fell into three categories: those owed by the nation to foreign governments and investors, mostly France, those owed by the national government to merchants, soldiers, and revolutionary bondholders, and those owed by state governments. People saw that they needed to pay for the national debt, but not the state debts. Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, and Georgia had already paid off most war debts by levying taxes and handing out land grants in lieu of money. They opposed taxing their citizens so that national governments could assume other states' debts. Massachusetts, Connecticut, and South Carolina still had sizable unpaid debts and welcomed national assumption. Consolidating state debt in the hands of the national government would help concentrate power at the national level.
In his ________ ___ ________ _________ in January 1790, Hamilton proposed that Congress assume outstanding state debts, combine them with national obligations, and issue new securities covering principal and accumulated unpaid interest. He hoped to ensure that holders of the public debt-many of them wealthy merchants and speculators-had a stake in the new government's survival. Opposition coalesced around James Madison, whose state of Virginia had mostly eliminated its war debt and who wanted to avoid rewarding wealthy speculators who purchased debt certificates at a fraction of their value from needy veterans and farmers.
The House initially rejected the assumption of state debts, but the Senate adopted Hamilton's plan largely intact. Compromises followed, in which the assumption bill became linked to another major issue: location of the permanent national capital. A site on the Potomac River became the capital, and the first part of hamilton's program became law in August 1790.
He submitted to Congress a second report on public credit, recommending the chartering of a national bank modeled on the Bank of England. The bank would act as collecting and disbursing agent for the Treasury, and its notes would become the nation's currency. Madison thought not. He pointed to that Constitutional Convention delegates rejected a clause authorizing Congress to issue corporate charters. Attorney General Edmund Randolph and Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson agreed with Madison. Jefferson referred to Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which gave Congress the power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper." The key word, Jefferson argued, was necessary. Thus, he formulated the strict-constructionist interpretation of the Constitution. Hamilton's ________ __ ____ _________ _____ _____, presented in February 1791, expounded a broad-constructionist view of the Constitution. Hamilton argued that Congress could choose any means not specifically prohibited by the Constitution to achieve a constitutional end. He reasoned: if the end was constitutional and the means was not unconstitutional, then the means was constitutional. Washington concurred and the bill became law. The bank proved successful as did the debt program. The influx of new capital, coupled with the high prices that American grain now commanded in European markets, eased farmers' debt burdens and contributed to a new prosperity.
In his report on Manufactures, he urged Congress to promote the immigration of technicians and laborers and to support industrial development through limited use of protective tariffs. Rejected Hamilton's report.
That year Congress tried another of Hamilton's suggestions, an excise tax on whiskey distilled within the United States. Although proceeds from the Revenue Act of 1789 covered the interest on the national debt, the national government required additional income to fund state debts. This tax affected few westerners-farmers who grew corn and distillers who turned it into whiskey-and might also reduce whiskey consumption. Moreover, western farmers and distillers were jefferson's supporters, and hamilton saw the benefits of taxing them rather than his merchant allies.
News of the tax sparked protests on Pennsylvania's frontier. Residents were upset that the government that protected them inadequately from Indian attacks was proposing to tax them disproportionately. Unrest continued for 2 years on the frontiers of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. Large groups drafted petitions protesting the tax, deliberately imitated 1760's actions, and occasionally harassed tax collectors.
President Washington stayed restrained until violence erupted in July 1794, when western Pennsylvania farmers resisted 2 excise tax collectors. When about 7,000 rebels convened on August 1 to plot destruction of Pittsburgh, he took action to prevent a repeat of Shays's Rebellion. On August 7, he told insurgents to disperse and summoned nearly 13,000 militia from Pennsylvania and neighboring states. Troops met no resistance and arrested only 20 suspects. 2 were convicted of treason, but Washington pardoned both. The national government, Washington demonstrated, would not allow violent resistance to its laws.
Republicans and Federalists
Jefferson and Madison became convinced as early as 1792 that Hamilton's policies favoring wealthy commercial interests over agriculture aimed at imposing a corrupt, aristocratic government on the US. Characterizing themselves as the true heirs of the Revolution, they charged that Hamilton was plotting to subvert republican principles and began calling themselves and their followers Republicans. Hamilton and his supporters called themselves Federalists to link themselves with the Constitution. Washington tried to remain aloof from the political dispute dividing his chief advisers.
1778 alliance Treaty with France, Edmon Genet and Washington's Proclamation of Neutrality
In 1789 Americans welcomed news of the French Revolution. It enabled Americans to see themselves as the vanguard of an inevitable trend that would reshape the world in republican terms. Although many Americans, including Jefferson and Madison, retained sympathy for the revolution, others, among them Alexander Hamilton cited France as an example of the precession of republicanism. Debates intensified when the newly republican France became enmeshed in conflict with other European nations. Seeking to keep neighboring monarchies from intervening, and hoping to spread republicanism, French leaders declared war on Austria and then , in 1793, on Britian, Spain and Holland. That posed a dilemma for American. The ________________ with France bound them as allies "forever." Yet US was connected o Great Britain through a shared history and language and renewed economic ties. Because the US revenues depended heavily on import tariffs, the nation's economic health required uninterrupted trade with England.
The situation in April 1793, when ______ ____, a Representative of the French government arrived in Charleston, South Carolina. As he traveled to New York City, he recruited Americans for expeditions against British and Spanish colonies. Washington received him but also used a proclamation that the US would adopt "a conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerent powers." Federalists newspapers defended the proclamation, while Republicans only reluctantly accepted the enormously popular neutrality policy.
Genet's faction fell from power in Paris, and he sought political asylum in the United States. But the domestic divisions Genet helped to widen were perpetuated by clubs called _______ _________, formed by Americans sympathetic to the French Revolution and worried about the Washington Administration. More than 40 of these organized between 1793 and 1800. Members saw themselves as heirs of the Sons of Liberty with the same goal: protecting peoples liberties against encroachments by corrupt, self-serving rulers. They protested government fiscal and foreign policy and proclaimed their belief in the equal rights of man, particularly free speech, free press, and free assembly. They comprised chiefly artisans and craftsmen, although professionals, farmers, and merchants also joined. They communicated through newspapers and allied with congressional Republicans. Calling them dangerously subversive, the groups "real design, " a Federalist newspaper asserted, was "to involve the country in war, to assume the reins of government and tyrannize over the people." The counter attack climaxed in the fall of 1794 , when Washington accused the societies of fomenting the Whiskey Rebellion. They alarmed officials, who had not yet accepted that organized loyal opposition was on component of a free government.
the Jay Treaty
In 1794 George Washington dispatched Chief Justice John Jay to London to negotiate unresolved questions in Anglo-American relations. The US wanted to establish freedom of the seas and to assert its right, as a neutral nation, to trade freely with both combatants. Further, Great Britain still elf posts in the American Northwest, thus violating the 1783 peace treaty. Settlers there believed that the British were responsible for renewed warfare with neighboring Indians. The Americans also hoped for a commercial treaty and sought compensation for the slaves who left with the British army after the war.
Britain agreed to evacuate western forts and ease restrictions on American trade to England and the West Indies. The treaty established 2 arbitration commissions-one to deal with prewar debts Americans owed British creditors and the other to hear claims for captured American merchants ships-but Britain refused slaveowners compensation for lost bondspeople. The Senate debated the Jay Treaty in secret, and the public only learned its provisions after ratification in late June 1795. Protests and Newspapers called for George Washington to reject the treaty. Southern planters criticized the lack of compensation for runaways slaves and objected to the commission on prewar debts, which might make them pay debts dating back to the 1760s. Federalists countered with their own meetings and publications, contending that the Jay Treaty would prove preferable to no treaty at all. The president signed the treaty in mid-August. One opportunity remained to prevent it from taking effect: Congress had to appropriate funds, and, according to the Constitution, appropriation bills had to originate in the House of Representatives. In resisting to give negotiation documents to the House, Washington established a power still used today- executive privilege, in which the president may withhold information from congress if he deems it necessary. READ PG 191
Federalists linked the treaty with the more popular ___ ________. In 1795 Thomas ________ of South Carolina negotiated a treaty with Spain giving the US navigation privileges on the Mississippi River and the right to land and store goods at New Orleans tax free. The overwhelming support of this treaty helped overcome opposition to the Jay treaty. The vote divided along partisan and regional lines: all but 2 southerners opposed the treaty, all but 3 congressional Federalists supported it. Despite the Federalists success, their campaign to sway public opinion ironically violated their fundamental government philosophy-that ordinary people should defer to the judgment of elected leaders. The Federalists had won the battle, but in the long run they lost the war, for Republicans ultimately proved far more effective in appealing to the citizenry at large.
Washington's Farewell Adress
After the treaty debate, wearied by criticism, Washington decided to retire. This most of which Hamilton wrote. In it Washington outlined 2 principles that guided American foreign policy until the late 1940s: to maintain commercial but not political ties to other nations and to enter no permanent alliances. He also stressed America's uniqueness and exceptionalism-and the need for independent action in foreign affairs, today called unilateralism. An attack on the Republican opposition. He advocated unity behind the Federalist banner.
Election of 1796, John Adams as president
This election saw the first serious contest for the position of president. Federalists in Congress put forward Vice President John Adams, with diplomat Thomas Pinckney as his running mate. Congressional Republicans chose Thomas Jefferson as their presidential candidate; the lawyer, Revolutionary War veteran, and politician Aron Burr of New York agreed to run for vice president.
In most states, legislatures appointed electors, and the method of voting in the electoral college did not account for the possibility of party slates. The Constitution's drafters had not foreseen the development of competing political organizations, so there was no way to support one person for president and another for vice president. The electors toed for two people. The man with the highest total became president; the second highest, vice president.
This proved to be the Federslists' undoing. Adams wont he presidency with 70 votes, but Thomas Jefferson won 68 votes, 9 more than Pinckney, to become vice president. The president and the vice president, once allies, eventually became enemies.
Adam's kept Washington's cabinet intact, despite its key members' allegiance to his chief Federalist rival, Alexander Hamilton. Adams was passive, letting others (usually Hamilton) lead when he should have. But Adam's detachment did enable him to weather the greets international crisis yet: the qUASI-War with France.
the xyz affair, the quasi-war with France
The jay treaty improved America's relationship with Great Britain, but it provoked the French government to retaliate by ordering its ships to seize American vessels carrying British goods. Congress authorized shipbuilding and stockpiling weapons and ammunition. President Adams also sent 3 commissioners to Paris to negotiate a settlement. For months, the commissioners sought talks with Talleyrand, the French foreign minister, but Tallleyrand's agents demanded a bribe of 250,000 first. The Americans refused. Adams informed Congress of the impasse and recommended increases in defense appropriations.
Convinced that Adams deliberately sabotaged negotiations, congressional Republicans insisted that the commissioners' reports be turned overt to Congress. Adams complied, aware that releasing these dispatches would work to his advantage. He withheld only the names of French agents, referring to them as x,y, and z. The revelation that the Americans were treated with contempt stimulated anti-French sentiment in the United States. Cries for war resounded. congress abrogated the treaty of alliance and authorized american ships to seize french vessels.
Thus began an undeclared war with France fought in Caribbean waters between warships of the U.S. Navy and French privateers. Although Americans initially suffered heavy merchant shipping losses, but early 1799 the U.S. Navy established its superiority. Its ships captured 8 French privateers and naval vessels, easing the threat to American's Caribbean trade.
The Republicans, who opposed war and sympathized with France, could not quell anti-French feelings. Because Agent Y boasted of a "French oarty in America" Federalists accused Republicans of traitorous designs.
the Alien and Sedition Act
Now that the country seemed to see the truth of what federalists argues since teh whiskey rebellion in 1794-that Republicans were subversive foreign agents-Federlists sought to codify that belief into law. In 1798 the Federalist-controlled Congress adopted 4 laws known as the __________________, intended to supress dissent and prevent the growth of the Republican faction. Three of the acts targeted recent immigrants, whom Federalists accurately suspected of having Republican sympathies. The Naturalization act lengthened the residency period required for citizenship and ordered resident aliens to register with the federal government. The two ______ _____ provided for the detention of enemy aliens in wartime and gave the president authority to deport any alien he deemed dangerous to national security. The fourth statue, the _____ _____, outlawed conspiracies to prevent enforcement of federal laws, punishable with 5 years in prison and a 5,000 fine. And writing, printing, or uttering "false, scandalous and malicious" statements against the government or the president "with intent to defame . . . or bring them or either of them, into contempt or disrepute" became a crime punishable by up to two years imprisonment and a fine of 2,000. James Callender and Mattheey Lyons read 193
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Faced with prosecutions of their allies, Jefferson and Madison sought to combat the acts. Petitioning the Federalist-controlled congress to repeal the laws would fail. furthermore, federalist judges refused to allow accused individuals to question teh sedition act's constitutionality. The Republican leaders turned to the state legislatures. Concealing their role to avoid being indicted for sedition, Jefferson and Madison drafted resolutions that were introduced into the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures in the fall of 1798. Because a compact among the states created the Constitution, the resolutions contended, people speaking through their states had a right to judge the constitutionality of federal measures. Both pronounced the Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional, and thus advanced the doctrine later known as nullification.
Although they stood alone, they had considerable influence. They rallied Republican opinion nationwide and placed opposition party in the revolutionary tradition of resistance to tyrannical authority. he theory of union ha they proposed inspired the Hartford Convention of 1814 and southern states' rights advocates in the 1830s and theater. Jefferson and Madison identified a key constitutional issue: How far could states go in opposing the national government? Not answered until civil war.
Little Turtle, Battle of the Fallen Timbers, The Treaty of Greenville, South West Ordinance
General Arthur St. Clair, first governor of the Northwest Territory, tried to open more land to settlement through treaty negotiations with the western confederacy in early 1789, but negotiations failed. Subsequently, Little Turtle, the confederacy's war chief, defeated forces led by Genral Josiah Harmar and by St. Clair in battles near present indiana and Ohio border. More than 600 of St. Clair's men died, and more were wounded, in the United States' worst defeat in frontier history.
In 1793 the Miami Confederacy declared that peace would come only if the United states recognized the Ohio River as its northwestern boundary. But the national government refused. A reorganized army under the Revolutionary War her General Anthony Wayne defeated the confederacy in August 1794 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers (near present-day Toledo, Ohio).
In August 1795, Wayne and the Miami Confederacy agreed to the Treaty of Greenville. The US gained the right to settle much of what would become Ohio. Indians received the acknowledgment they long sought: the US accepted the principle of iNDIAN SOVEREIGNTY, BY virtue of residence, over lands native peoples had not ceded. Never again would the US government claim that it acquired Indian territory solely through negotiation with a European or north American country.
Pinckney's Treaty with Spain that year established the 31st parallel as the boundary between the US and Florida. Spanish influence in the Old Southwest raised questions about the loyalty of American settlers in the region, much of still unceded and occupied by Creeks, Cherokees, and other Indians. A ______________ (1790) attempted to organize the territory; by permitting slavery, it made the region attractive to slaveholders.
Indian Trade and Intercourse Act of 1793
Henry Knox wanted to civilize the Indians. He thought to government should "impart our knowledge of cultivation and the arts to the aboriginals of the country." __________ codified Knox's plan, promising that the federal government would supple Indians with animals, agricultural implements, and instructors. The plan incorrectly posited that Indians' traditional commitment to communal landowning could be overcome, and it ignored their centuries-long agricultural experience.
The tax resistance movement named for Revolutionary War veteran John ________ arose in Pennsylvania's Lehigh Valley in 1798-1799 among German American farmers. To finance the Quasi-War, Congress enacted taxes on land, houses, and legal documents. German Americans, imbued with revolutionary ideals ( at least 2/5s were veterans) regarded the taxes as a threat to their liberties and livelihoods. Asserting their right to resist unconstitutional laws, they raised liberty poles, signed petitions to Congress and nonviolently prevented assessor from evaluating their homes.
A federal judge ordered the arrest of 20 resisters. In response, March 1799, _______ led 120 militiamen to Bethlehem, where they surrounded the tavern temporarily housing the prisoners. Fearing a violent confrontation, a federal marshal eventually let the men go. Although _________ and the other "traitors" were sentenced to hang, Adams pardoned them 2 days before their scheduled execution, concluding they were rioters rather than traitors.
Buoyed by news of the successful slave revolt in St. Domingue in 1793, _____, an enslaved blacksmith, planned the second end of the century recolution.
Gabriel first recruited other skilled African Americans who like himself lived in semifreedom with minimal supervision. Next he enlisted rural slaves. The revels planned to attack Richmond on the night of August 30, 1800, set firs to the city, seize the state capitol, and capture the governor, James Monroe. At that point, he believed, other slaves and perhaps poor whites would join in. Heavy rain forced a postponement. Several planters hear of the plot and foiled it. 26 rebels including _______ were hanged. Only slaves who betrayed their fellows won freedom as a result of the rebellion.
Southern state legislatures responeded by increasing the severity of slavery laws.
Election of 1800, 12 Amendment, "Midnight justices," the Judiciary Act of 1801
The Republican takeover by the election of Thomas Jefferson as president and a Congress dominated by Republicans. Republicans nominated Jefferson and Aaron Burr; Federalists named John Adams, with Charles Cotesowrth Pinckney of the South Carolina as vice president. Jefferson and Burr tied with 72 votes, while Adams had 64 and Pinckney 63. Under Artice II, Section 1, of the constitution, the election had to be decided in the existing House of Representatives. Federalists uniformly supported Burr and Republicans holding for Jefferson. Finally, James Bayard, a Federalist and the sole congressman from Delaware, brokered a deal that gave Jefferson the presidency on the 36 ballot. A crucial consequence of the election was the adoption of the 12 Amendment, which provided that electors would henceforth cast separate ballots for president and vice president.
The defeated Federalists turned to strengthening their hold on the judiciary. President Adams named his secretary of state, John Marshall, chief justice; Marshall would serve for 34 years, leaving a lasting imprint on constitutional interpretation. Adams spent his last hours in office on March 3, 1801, appointing so called midnight justices to new positions created in the heartily adopted ________ _______ of 1801, which reduced the number of Supreme Court justices from 6 to 5. The fiercely partisan Federalists thus hoped to prevent jefferson from exerting immediate influence on teh judicial branch, despite Republican control of the presidency and Congress.
READ PG 196
Iroquois men became more receptive to the Quakers' lessons after the spring of 1799, when a Seneca named _________ _______ experienced a series of visions. He preached that Indian Peoples should renounce alcohol, gambling, and other destructive European customs. He directed followers to reorient men's and women's work assignments as the Quakers advocated, as he recognized that only by adopting this European sexual division of labor could the Iroquois retain autonomous existence.