Chapter 5 Exam 2

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increases seawater salinity

evaporation, high temperature, low latitude, sea ice formation

decreases seawater salinity

river input, precipitation

sublimation

change in phase from solid to gas

condensation

change in phase from gas to liquid

evaporation

change in phase from liquid to gas

pycnocline

rapid change in density with slight change in depth

halocline

rapid change in salinity with slight change in depth

False

Water can pile up higher than the edge of a container due to its low surface tension.

True

Water is a polar molecule.

True

Water molecules exhibit strong cohesion.

False

Latent heat of vaporization is the same as latent heat of sublimation.

True

The latent heat of vaporization of water is greater than the latent heat of melting.

True

Evaporation causes cooling in the residual liquid.

True

Heat capacity of liquid water is 1 calorie per gram per degree C

True

Chloride and sodium are the most abundant ions in seawater.

False

Salinity refers to all the solid materials in seawater including dissolved and suspended substances.

True

The density of seawater is affected by salinity and temperature.

True

The alkalinity of a solution is a measure of its tendency to release hydroxide ions when dissolved.

False

Any solution with a pH of greater than 7.0 is acidic

True

As a whole, the pH of the ocean is slightly alkaline.

True

pH will tend to rise in areas of the ocean with high primary productivity.

The phase in which water exists is determined by:

temperature and pressure.

Hydrogen bonds form between neighboring water molecules because of:

polarity of water molecules

The surface tension of water:

is relatively high.

Covalent bonds form between hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a water molecule as a result of the

sharing of electrons between atoms.

Water can pile up a short distance above a container's rim due to:

high surface tension.

Some insects can glide across the surface of water due to water's:

surface tension.

Many of the unique properties of water are attributed to the fact that water:

is a polar molecule.

The amount of energy that is necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree C is called the:

calorie

Which property of water causes coastal communities to have only moderate differences in daily highs and lows when compared to inland communities

high heat capacity

Latent heat is used to:

change states of matter.

A beaker contains a mixture of ice and pure water at 0oC. What happens to the temperature of the mixture as heat is added?

It remains constant until the ice melts; then it begins to rise.

When water evaporates from the ocean surface:

the remaining water is cooled.

In comparison to most other liquids, the heat capacity of water is:

higher than other liquids

The average salinity of sea water is:

3.5%

The Principle of Constant Proportions states that

the relative concentrations of seawater ions do not change.

Which of the following statements regarding pH is not true?

As a whole, the pH of the ocean is slightly acidic.

The ion in seawater that serves as a buffer is

HCO3-.

The transfer of water from the atmosphere to the oceans to the continents is known as the:

hydrologic cycle.

A rapid change in ocean temperature with change in depth is the:

thermocline.

A rapid change in ocean density with change in depth is the

pycnocline.

Word Analysis. Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the one option that does not fit the pattern.

buffering capacity, hydrogen ion, pH

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