What is the action of an adrenergic (beta 2 agonist)?
Beta 2 receptors are stimulated and bronchodilation occurs.
What is important to monitor for an individual currently taking Albuterol drugs Proventil or Ventolin?
One of the side effects is an increase in blood glucose levels.
What is the action of an anticholinergic drug?
It blocks acetylcholine receptors to prevent bronchoconstriction therefore causing airway dilation.
What is the action of Xanthines? (Aminophylline, Theophylline)
They increase the levels of cAMP by inhibiting PDE. They also inhibit IgE. This will result in bronchodilation.
What is the action of Mast Cell Stabilizers? (Intal, NasalCrom)
They stabilize the cell membranes of mast cells to prevent the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine and in turn help treat asthma
What is the action of Leukotriene antagonists? (Montelukast, Singulair)
They prevents leukotrienes from attaching to receptors located on circulating immune cells as well as local immune cells within the lungs. They reduce inflammation, and decrease mucus secretions
What is the action of corticosteriods in the treatment of asthma and COPD? (Flovent)
They help reduce inflammation and enhance the activity of B-agonists.
What is the issue with sudden withdrawal of steroid medications?
adrenal gland failure
What is an important nursing action to perform when a client is on montelukast (singulair)?
Periodically check liver enzymes.
What drugs does montelukast (singulair) cause faster metabolization of?
Phenobarbital and rifampin (Thus the dosage of these might need to be increased)
What drug causes red-orange-brown discoloration of urine, tears, sweat, and sputum?
What causes pyridoxine deficiency?
Isoniazid and ethambutol
What should the client be educated when taking Antitubercular drugs?
Take the medication at night to decrease the nausea and vomiting.
Aminophylline and theophylline should not be taken with which substances?
Avoid use with caffeine and sympathomimetics for they can produce additive cardiac and CNS stimulation.
What substances will enhance Xanthines and require higher dose? (Aminophylline and theophylline)
St. John's Wort and Smoking
What foods will decrease serum levels of Xanthines?
Charcoal broiling, high protein, and low carbohydrate foods.
Why is aspirin no longer the drug of choice?
It has a tendency to cause G.I. bleeds
What salicylate should be given with meals to prevent gastric irritation?
Ipratropium (Atrovent) should not be used with which disorders?
Narrow angle glaucoma and Prostatic hypertrophy
Adrenalin & Alupent is contraindicated with which disorders?
CAD, arrhythmias, and Tachycardia
What bronchodilators are given for exercised induced asthma?
What foods should not be taken for a client being medicated with OTC cough products, colas, coffee, chocolate. (They all increase the chance of side effects)
What bronchodilator causes muscle tremors as a frequent side effect?
terbutaline (Brethine, Brethaire)
Korsakoff's Syndrome is a dementia caused by what deficiency?
Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
Why is folic acid essential for normal metabolism of all body cells?
Stimulates production of red blood cells
What is calcium gluconate (Kalcinate) given for?
hypo-parathryodism (supplments calcium)
Anticholinesterase drugs used for mild to moderate Alzheimer's should be administered when? (Aricept, Cognex, Razadyne, Exelon)
Bedtime to avoid dizziness
What should be monitored with Anticholinesterase drugs used for mild to moderate Alzheimer's? (Aricept, Cognex, Razadyne, Exelon)
Monitor patients gait upon ambulation
What is the action of gold containing compounds used for RA?
Inhibits T and B cell activity, suppresses synovitis during active stage of rheumatoid disease.
What should you remind the client to take when they are on corticosteriods?
Take calcium, vitamin D, and Fosamax
What group of drugs causes retinal damage?
Antimalarials (plaquenil, aralen)
What drug helps to stimulate appetite?
Which drug spares cox-1 enzymes and is protective to the stomach but detrimental to the heart?
How often is neulasta given for?
Once per chemotherapy cycle
How often is Aranesp given?
What is Rituxan (rituximab) used to treat?
What is the action of bevacizumab (Avastin)?
It inhibits growth of new blood vessels
What are the side effects of a hematopoietic agents?
fever, muscle aches, bone pain, flushing
What are the typical side effects of a monoclonal antibody?
rash, pruritis, fever, chills, headache
What are the typical side effects of an interferon?
fever, chills, headache, malaise, myalgia, fatigue
What are the typical side effects of a interleukin?
Rashes or edema may develop at the site of injection, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, appetite loss, fatigue.
How is Photofrin used?
Light from a laser to destroy cancer cells. (Photofrin is retained to a greater degree by tumor tissue and skin than other areas in the body)
What are Zyloprin (allopurinol) and Elitek (Rasburicase) used to prevent?
Hyperuricemia and uric acid nephropathy
________________ is used to reduce renal toxicity associated with Cisplatin?
________________ is used to reduce cardiomyopathy associated with Adriamycin (doxrubicin)
________________ is used to reduce toxicities with the use of high dose methotraxate
________________ prevents hemorrhagic cystitis associated with Ifex (ifosfamide)
What chemotherapeutic drug can cause cardiotoxicity (arrhythmias)?
What chemotherapeutic drug can cause pulmonary toxicity?
What chemotherapeutic drug can cause nephrotoxic, ototoxic, peripheral neuropathy problems?
What chemotherapeutic drug can cause peripheral neuritis and paralytic ileus?
What chemotherapeutic drug can cause GI ulceration?
What chemotherapeutic drug can cause diarrhea?
What does filgrastin (Neupogen) do?
Stimulates production of neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils
What does pegfilgrastim (Neulasta) do?
Longer acting form of Neupogen (Stimulates production of neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils)
What does oprelvekin (Neumega) do?
Stimulates production of platelets
What does epoetin alfa (Epogen) do?
Stimulates production of RBC's
What does darbepoetin (Aranesp) do?
Longer acting form of epogen (Stimulates production of RBC's)
What are examples of anti-emetics?
Zofran, Ativan, Emend, and Compazine
What is a drug used to prevent hyperuricemia?
What should the nurse remember when administering Aricept, Cognex, Exelon, or Razadyne for Alzheimer's?
Administer the medication at bedtime to avoid dizziness and monitor patients gait upon ambulation
Why is fludrocortisone (Florinef)
Given to increase sodium levels
What is an important consideration when a client is taking PTU or Tapazole?
It may increase the effects of digitalis, anticoagulants, and indocin.
What is corticotropin acthar used for?
Used in the diagnosis of adrenocortical insufficiency?
What is an important nursing action when taking care of a client on DDAVP or Diapid Nasal Spray?