Anatomy of Joints

Created by CorissaB 

Upgrade to
remove ads

Biology - Anatomy of joints.

"Gliding" movement of joints:

1 flat bone glides or slides over another (cartilaginous - symphysis: pad or plate of cartilage) *intervertebral discs

"Angular" movement of joints:

changes the angle between 2 joints (synovial joint: made of multiple components) *

""Special" movement of joints:

movement at specific joints (oposites: elevation/depression, protraction/retraction)

3 general catagories of joint movement:

Gliding, Angular, & Special Movements

3 structural categories of joints:

Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial

Fibrous Joints are:

joints composed of collagenous fibers - no joint cavity present (dense CT - white fibers)

Cartilaginous Joints are:

joints connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage

Synovial Joints are:

joints that allow free movement (most of the joints of the body are this) complex and contain multiple components 5 (diarthrosis - full movement)

Sutures are:

fibrous joints located between the flat bones of the *skull - united by a thin layer of dense CT (synarthrosis- NO movement)

Syndesmosis joints are:

fibrous joints contain bones that are bound or bundled by a sheet of dense CT (amphiathrotic- allows slight movement) *Tibiofibular articulation

Gomphosis joints are:

fibrous joints formed by the union of a cone shaped bony process & a bony socket (synarthrosis- NO movement) *root of tooth united with mandible

Synchondrosis joints are

cartilaginous joints joined by a band or plate of hyaline cartilage (synarthrosis- NO movement) *epiphyseal plate

Symphysis joints are:

cartilaginous joints with articulating surfaces seperated by thin layers of hyaline cartilage attached to a pad of fibrocartilage (amphiathrotic- allows slight movement) *intervertebral discs

5 distinct components of a synovial joint:

articular cartilage, joint capsule, reinforcing ligaments, menisci, & bursa

Synovial joint - articular cartilage:

hyaline cartilage that covers the surface of each bone

Synovial joint - joint capsule:

double layered capsule surrounded by a cavity that holds bones together

Outer layer of joint capsule:

external, tough, flexible, fibrous capsule, continuous with the periosteum of bones

Inner layer of joint capsule:

loose CT that covers all internal joint surfaces that do not contain hyaline cartilage, (secretes synovial fluid that prevents friction)

Synovial joint - reinforcing ligaments:

collagenous fibers that strenghten joint (usually thickened portions of fibrous capslue - intrinsic or capsular) *prevents excess movement

Synovial joint - menisci (or articular discs):

separate the cavity into 2 compartments - discs of fibrocartilage between articular surfaces (knee, jaw, sternoclavicular)

Synovial joint - bursa:

flattened fibrous sacs with a synovial membrane and fluid that prevent friction on adjacent structures during joint activity (between skin & bone or bone & ligaments)

Synovial fluid is:

a clear viscous (thick, sticky consistancy) fluid secreted by a membrane to lubricat joints and prevent friction *contains phagocytes & nourishes cartliage

Ball-and-socket (synovial joint):

most freely movable joints, all angular movement (head of one bone fits into socket of another) * hip & shoulder

6 types of synovial joints:

ball-and-socket, condyloid joints, gliding joints, hinge joints, pivot joints, & saddle joints

Condyloid (synovial joint):

have all motion except rotation, oval condyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another (metacarpals & phalanges)

Gliding (synovial joints):

have flat or slightly curved articulating sites (carpals & tarsals, and sternum w/ ribs 2-7)

Hinge (synovial joint):

Only flexion & extension - convex surface of one bone fits into a concave surface of another (elbox & knee)

Pivot (synovial joint):

permits rotation - cylindrical surface of one bone rotates within ring formed of bone & ligament (axis (dens) -or- radioulnar joint)

Saddle (synovial joint):

articulating surfaces have both the concave and convex surfaces (carpal & matacarpal of the THUMB)

Origin:

the part of a muscle that is attached to the immovable bone ("fixed point")

Insertion:

part of the muscle attached to the movable bone (when a muscle contracts across a joint it's _________ pulls toward the origin)

Types of Angular movement:

Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, & rotation

Types of Special movement:

supination/pronation, inversion/eversion, elevation/depression, & protraction/retraction

Types of Flexion (angular movement):

dorsiflexion & plantar flexion

Flexion is:

bending parts at a joint so that the angle between them decreases and the parts come closer together (bending the knee)

Dorsiflexion is:

flexion of the foot - the ankle movement that brings the foot closer to the shin

Plantar flexion is:

flexion of the foot - movement at the ankle that brings the foot farther from the shin

Extension is:

straightening parts at a joint so that the angle between them increases and the parts move further apart

Abduction is:

moving a part away from the midline (lifting arm to form 90 degree angle -or- spreading fingers or toes)

Adduction is:

moving a part toward the midline (putting arm down to your side -or- closing fingers or toes)

Circumduction is:

moving a part so that it's ends follow a circular path (moving finger in circular pattern without moving hand)

Rotation is:

moving a part around an axis (moving head from side to side) *can be medial or lateral

Supination is:

turning the hand so that the palm is upward or facing anteriorly

Pronation is:

turning the hand so that the palms are facing downward or posteriorly

Inversion is:

turning the foot so that the plantar surface faces medially (inward)

Eversion is:

Turning the foot so that the plantar surface is facing laterally

Elevation is:

raising a part (shugging the shoulders)

Depression is:

lowering a part (drooping the shoulders)

Protraction is:

moving a part forward (thrusting head forward)

Retraction is:

moving a part backwards (pulling head back)

Ligaments in the shoulder:

coracohumeral, glenohumeral, transvers humeral

The shoulder joint is:

2 joints a ball-and-socket (synovial) joint called the glenohumeral joint & a syndesmosis (fibrous) joint called the acromioclavicular joint

The ball-and-socket in the shoulder is:

surrounded by many reinforcing ligaments and tendons collectively called the rotator cuf

The 4 bursa that lubricate the shoulder:

subscapular, subdeltiod, subacromial, & subcoracois

Shoulder movement can:

occur in any angular plane - flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation and circumduction

The elbow joint is:

2 joints hinge (trochlear notch of ulna/trochlea of humerus) & gliding joint (capitulum of humerus/head of radius)

Ligaments of the elbow:

"Ulnar collateral" ligament medially, "radial collateral" ligament laterally, & "anular" ligament encircles the head of the radius

The elbow joint is a very:

stable joint with many reinforcing ligaments.

The elbow only allows for:

movement by-- flexion and extension

The hip (coxal) joint:

Contains many large reinforcing ligaments & allows same movements as shoulder, but with less range due to bony limitations
(flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation and circumduction)

Ligaments in the hip (coxal) joint:

Iliofemoral ligament, pubofemoral ligament, & ischiofermoral ligament

The knee consists of:

3 joints (2 condyloid joints at the medial and lateral condyles) & (1 gliding joint between the patella and the patellar surface of the femur)

Extracapsular ligaments in the knee:

(strong, on the outside) patellar, tibial collateral, & fibular collateral

Intrascapular ligaments of the knee:

(weaker ligaments on the inside) anterior cruciate & posterior cruciate

Your epiphyseal plates harden:

between the ages of 14-20

With age fibrocartilage loses water, which:

decreases flexibility of intervertebral joints

Collagen starts to change and:

stiffen at the age of 30

Articular cartilage:

(hyaline) resists wear and minimizes friction *and acts asa shock absorber for spoungy bone

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set