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Ch 6: Nutrition; Ch 16: Breasts; Ch 17: Abdomen; Ch 18: Female Genitalia; Ch 19: Male Genitalia; Ch 20: Anus, Rectum, & Prostate; Ch 21: Musculoskeletal

Where are the skene glands located?

2 o'clock and 11 o'clock

What would discharge of the skene glands most likely indicate?

an infection

what do the skene glands do?

secrete mucus

where are the bartholin glands located?

5 and 7 o'clock

what do you check the bartholin glands for?

swelling, masses tenderness, warmth, discharge

A non tender mass in the bartholin glands is an indicator of a bartholin cyst, which is the result of what?

chronic inflammation

describe the labia majora

may be gaping or closed and may appear dry or moist. symmetrical

A unilateral labia majora may indicate what?

bartholin gland infection

scratching of the labia majora would be obvious because of what?

excoriation, rashes, or lesions

describe the labia minora

can be symmetrical or assymmetrical and the inner surface should be moist and dark pink

what could inflammation, irritation, excoriation or caking of discharge in the tissues fold of the labia minora indicate?

vaginal infection or poor hygiene

Discoloration or tenderness of the labia minora could indicate

traumatic bruising

Ulcers or vesicles in the labia minora could be a sign of ?

STI

Describe the perineum

smooth and thick. Unless pregnant.

Describe what happens to the perineum after a woman has had children

it would thin after each birth and it could be ridged

what should you note when looking at the perineum?

inflammation, tenderness, fistulas, lesions or growths

what is a protrusion of an organ or tissue through an opening in the muscle wall called?

hernia

Describe a bladder prolapse

occurs when the supportive tissue between a woman's bladder and vaginal wall weakens and stretches allowing the bladder to bulge into the vagina

Describe cystocele

the hernial protrusion of the urinary bladder through the anterior wall of the vagina, sometimes even exciting the introitus and can be seen or felt when the woman bears down

describe rectocele

the protrusion of part of the rectum through the posterior vaginal wall

What is it called when the uterus descends into or beyond the vaginal wall?

uterine prolapse

uterine prolapse is the result of what?

weakiening of the supporting structures of the pelvic floor often occuring with a cystocele or rectocele

what is the lower end of the uterus called?

cervix

what color should the cervix be?

pink.

what would a bluish cervix indicate?

increased varicosity, pregnancy

what would a pale cervix indicate?

anemia

a cervix pointing anteriorly would indicate what type of uterus?

retroverted

a cervix pointing posteriorly would indicate what type of uterus?

anteverted

a horizontal position of the cervix would indicate what position of the uterus?

midposition

where should the cervix be located?

midline

deviations of the cervix to either side might indicate what?

pelvic mass, uterine adhesion or pregnancy

the cervix should protrude ___-__ cm into the vagina and anything more can indicaate a pelvic or uterine mass

1-3cm

what should any cervical discharge smell like?

odorless

How does the os of a multiparous woman vary from a nulliparous woman

a multiparous woman would have a slit-like os and a nulliparous woman should have a circular os

define multiparous woman

a woman who has had children

define a nulliparous woman

a woman who has no children

What is an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes and other reproductive organs called?

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

PID could be a serious complication of some what?

STI

what causes PID

Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis

What are the symptoms of PID?

painful urination, painful intercourse, irregular menstrual bleeding and pain in the upper right abdomen

what hormones are necessary and responsible for the uterine enlargement during the first trimester

estrogen and progesterone

After the 3rd month, uterine enlargement is due to ?

mechanical pressure of the growing fetus

What are the risk factors for penile cancer?

lack of circumcision with failure to maintain good hygiene, phimosis, HPV, age, smoking

what are the risk factors for testicular cancer?

undescended testicles, history of testicular cancer, abnormal developments, Klinefelter syndrome, between ages 20-54, white

what are the risk factors for prostate cancer?

older than 50, black, family history of prostate cancer, diet high in animal fat, physical inactivity, high level of exposure to androgens

what are the risk factors for colorectal cancer?

older than 50, family hx of colorectal cancer, intestinal polyps, chronic inflammatory bowel disease, Gardner syndrome, personal hx or ovarian, endometrial or breast cancer, diet high in beef and animal fats, low in fiber, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity. alcohol intake

what are the risk factors for anal cancer?

older than 90. infection with HIP, multiple sex partners, having receptive anal intercourse, frequent anal redness, swelling and soreness, anal fissure. smoking/ immunosuppresion

What are the risks for breast cancer

increases with age, female, personal or family history, previous breast biopsies, white women, previous breast radiation, menarche before 12 and menopause after 35. dense or fatty breast tissue, nulliparity, or first child after age 30, HT, alcohol, obesity, lack of physical activity

what are the risks for cervical cancer

lack of screening, HPV, sexual intercourse before 16 and multiple sex partners, diet low in fruit and veggies, higher in blacks and Hispanics, mothers who took DES, oral contraceptives,

What are ovarian cancer risks?

early menarche, infertility, nulliparity, number of menstrual cycles in lifetime, use of fertility drugs, personal history, BRCA1 or 2, white women, HRT, bad diet

What age does the american cancer society suggest that women begin breast self-examinations?

20

When is a genitalia self-exam highly suggested?

anyone with risks of STIs

what does the liquid based cytology test for?

HPV, GC, Chlamydia, Trichomoniasis

What does the DNA probe tube test for?

GC and chlamydia

what does the wet prep test for?

bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis

what does the KOH prep test for?

candidiasis, yeast cells

what does the whiff test test for?

fishy odor which would equal bacterial vaginosis

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