the cervix should protrude ___-__ cm into the vagina and anything more can indicaate a pelvic or uterine mass
Describe a bladder prolapse
occurs when the supportive tissue between a woman's bladder and vaginal wall weakens and stretches allowing the bladder to bulge into the vagina
the hernial protrusion of the urinary bladder through the anterior wall of the vagina, sometimes even exciting the introitus and can be seen or felt when the woman bears down
describe the labia minora
can be symmetrical or assymmetrical and the inner surface should be moist and dark pink
Describe what happens to the perineum after a woman has had children
it would thin after each birth and it could be ridged
deviations of the cervix to either side might indicate what?
pelvic mass, uterine adhesion or pregnancy
How does the os of a multiparous woman vary from a nulliparous woman
a multiparous woman would have a slit-like os and a nulliparous woman should have a circular os
A non tender mass in the bartholin glands is an indicator of a bartholin cyst, which is the result of what?
uterine prolapse is the result of what?
weakiening of the supporting structures of the pelvic floor often occuring with a cystocele or rectocele
What are ovarian cancer risks?
early menarche, infertility, nulliparity, number of menstrual cycles in lifetime, use of fertility drugs, personal history, BRCA1 or 2, white women, HRT, bad diet
what are the risk factors for anal cancer?
older than 90. infection with HIP, multiple sex partners, having receptive anal intercourse, frequent anal redness, swelling and soreness, anal fissure. smoking/ immunosuppresion
what are the risk factors for colorectal cancer?
older than 50, family hx of colorectal cancer, intestinal polyps, chronic inflammatory bowel disease, Gardner syndrome, personal hx or ovarian, endometrial or breast cancer, diet high in beef and animal fats, low in fiber, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity. alcohol intake
What are the risk factors for penile cancer?
lack of circumcision with failure to maintain good hygiene, phimosis, HPV, age, smoking
what are the risk factors for prostate cancer?
older than 50, black, family history of prostate cancer, diet high in animal fat, physical inactivity, high level of exposure to androgens
what are the risk factors for testicular cancer?
undescended testicles, history of testicular cancer, abnormal developments, Klinefelter syndrome, between ages 20-54, white
What are the risks for breast cancer
increases with age, female, personal or family history, previous breast biopsies, white women, previous breast radiation, menarche before 12 and menopause after 35. dense or fatty breast tissue, nulliparity, or first child after age 30, HT, alcohol, obesity, lack of physical activity
what are the risks for cervical cancer
lack of screening, HPV, sexual intercourse before 16 and multiple sex partners, diet low in fruit and veggies, higher in blacks and Hispanics, mothers who took DES, oral contraceptives,
What are the symptoms of PID?
painful urination, painful intercourse, irregular menstrual bleeding and pain in the upper right abdomen
what could inflammation, irritation, excoriation or caking of discharge in the tissues fold of the labia minora indicate?
vaginal infection or poor hygiene
what hormones are necessary and responsible for the uterine enlargement during the first trimester
estrogen and progesterone
What is an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes and other reproductive organs called?
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
what should you note when looking at the perineum?
inflammation, tenderness, fistulas, lesions or growths