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1. The study of how people change physically, mentally, and socially throughout the lifespan is called:
A) cognitive psychology.
B) humanistic psychology.
C) developmental psychology.
D) comparative psychology.

C) developmental psychology.

2. Which of the following statements BEST defines a chromosome?
A) a single unit of DNA instructions
B) the chemical genetic code that is the basis of heredity
C) a long, threadlike structure composed of DNA
D) the observable traits or characteristics displayed by an organism

C) a long, threadlike structure composed of DNA

3. Which of the following BEST defines a gene?
A) The observable traits or characteristics displayed by an organism.
B) A unit of DNA that encodes instructions for making a particular protein.
C) A type of highly specialized cell that directs the development of other cells.
D) One of several thousand different protein molecules.

B) A unit of DNA that encodes instructions for making a particular protein.

4. The term genotype refers to:
A) a recessive gene that is found only on the X chromosome.
B) the genetic makeup of an organism.
C) a computer-enhanced image of the genes found embedded in a single chromosome.
D) a category of living organisms that are genetically related.

B) the genetic makeup of an organism.

5. The term phenotype refers to:
A) a dominant gene found only on the X chromosome.
B) a computer-enhanced image of the chromosomal makeup of a single organism.
C) the observable characteristics of an organism as determined by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors.
D) the complete set of genes that an organism has inherited.

C) the observable characteristics of an organism as determined by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors.

6. The human genome:
A) is the complete map of the DNA in the human organism.
B) contains 23 pairs of genes.
C) is almost identical to that of primates and contains approximately 250,000 kinds of chromosomes.
D) has been hypothesized since the early 1900s but scientists have yet to prove that it exits.

A) is the complete map of the DNA in the human organism.

7. Which of the following represents the correct order of prenatal development?
A) embryonic period, germinal period, fetal period
B) fetal period, embryonic period, germinal period
C) germinal period, embryonic period, fetal period
D) germinal period, zygotic period, fetal period

C) germinal period, embryonic period, fetal period

8. Which of the following is NOT one of the teratogens listed in your textbook?
A) radiation exposure
B) AIDS
C) alcohol
D) deoxyribonucleic acid

D) deoxyribonucleic acid

9. Within hours of being born, an infant displays a preference for his or her mother's _____ over that of a stranger.
A) touch
B) voice
C) heartbeat
D) hair

B) voice

10. Temperament researchers agree that individual differences in temperament have a genetic and biological basis. Researchers also agree that:
A) a child's basic temperament is set for life by the age of 6 months.
B) a child's basic temperament is mostly determined by his environment and upbringing.
C) environmental experiences can modify a child's basic temperament.
D) because temperament has a genetic basis, it cannot be changed.

C) environmental experiences can modify a child's basic temperament.

11. The Culture and Human Behavior Box, "Where Does the Baby Sleep" described cultural differences in family sleeping habits. How did the bedtime routines in the Mayan families differ from the bedtime routines of the U.S. families?
A) Mayan families had more elaborate bedtime rituals for putting small children to sleep than the U. S. families.
B) Every Mayan child had a special blanket that he or she always slept with.
C) Unlike the U. S. families, there were no special bedtime routines in the Mayan families; the babies simply went to bed when their parents did or fell asleep in the middle of the family's activities.
D) Because the Mayan homes were so much smaller than the U. S. homes, all of the children slept in one room and the parents slept in another.

C) Unlike the U. S. families, there were no special bedtime routines in the Mayan families; the babies simply went to bed when their parents did or fell asleep in the middle of the family's activities.

12. John is a 3-year-old with a history of secure attachment to his mother and father. According to the research on the long-term effects of attachment, what can be predicted about John's later development?
A) John is likely to have academic and social problems as an adolescent.
B) John is likely to have difficulty getting along with other children in preschool because he is so self-centered.
C) John is likely to be socially competent both as a preschooler and as an adolescent.
D) No conclusions can be drawn, because there is no evidence to support the belief that quality of attachment in infancy has any long-term effects.

C) John is likely to be socially competent both as a preschooler and as an adolescent.

13. Which of the following represents the correct sequence of language development from birth to about age 2?
A) cooing, babbling, one-word stage, two-word stage
B) babbling, cooing, two-word stage, four-word stage
C) production, comprehension, one-word stage
D) consonants, vowels, babbling, two-word stage

A) cooing, babbling, one-word stage, two-word stage

14. The Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget is best known for his:
A) studies of the newborn's visual preferences.
B) research investigating the development of moral reasoning.
C) theory proposing that children progress through distinct stages of cognitive development.
D) influential theory of psychosocial development throughout the lifespan.

C) theory proposing that children progress through distinct stages of cognitive development.

15. Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
A) sensorimotor, concrete operations, preoperational, formal operations
B) preoperational, sensorimotor, concrete operations, formal operations
C) sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations
D) concrete operations, sensorimotor, preoperational, formal operations

C) sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations

16. On a rainy afternoon, 5-year-old Nathan had great fun building a pirate ship using the cushions from the couch and several kitchen chairs. Nathan's imaginary play reflects his capacity for _____, which is a characteristic of the _____ stage of cognitive development.
A) object permanence; preoperational
B) abstract reasoning; concrete operational
C) conservation; preoperational
D) symbolic thought; preoperational

D) symbolic thought; preoperational

17. Which of the following illustrates egocentrism?
A) When presented with two rows of six pennies, the child thinks that the row of pennies spaced further apart has more than the other row.
B) While talking on the phone, a little boy holds up four fingers in response to being asked how old he is.
C) Shown two equal balls of clay, the child correctly says that each ball still has the same amount even when one ball of clay is rolled out in a sausage shape.
D) The child creates a "treasure chest" from an old shoe box.

B) While talking on the phone, a little boy holds up four fingers in response to being asked how old he is.

18. Which of the following would characterize a child who is in the concrete operational stage of cognitive development?
A) The child tends to focus on only one aspect of a situation, such as the height but the not the width of the liquid in two containers.
B) The child is able to think logically and systematically even when dealing with abstract concepts.
C) The child can only use basic sensory and motor abilities to understand the world.
D) The child's use of logic tends to be limited to tangible events or objects.

D) The child's use of logic tends to be limited to tangible events or objects.

19. Seven-year-old Amy demonstrates logical thinking when she plays checkers with her father. Amy is most likely in the _____ stage of cognitive development.
A) sensorimotor
B) preoperational
C) concrete operational
D) formal operational

C) concrete operational

20. The zone of proximal development is an important element in:
A) Piaget's theory of cognitive development.
B) Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development.
C) Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.
D) Kohlberg's theory of moral development.

B) Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development.

21. According to the discussion in the text, Piaget's notion that his stages of cognitive development are universal has been challenged by the finding that:
A) some adults never display the characteristics of formal operational thinking.
B) children in many cultures do not display the characteristics of preoperational thinking.
C) most adolescents are unable to respond correctly to conservation tasks.
D) few people display the characteristics of concrete operational thinking.

A) some adults never display the characteristics of formal operational thinking.

22. Adolescent relationships are characterized by which of the following?
A) Relationships with parents become more important, while relationships with peers become less important.
B) Relationships with peers become all important, while relationships with parents are not important at all.
C) Relationships with peers increase in importance, but relationships with parents remain important.
D) Relationships with others become less important, as the adolescent tends to focus on developing his or her own identity.

C) Relationships with peers increase in importance, but relationships with parents remain important.

23. Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky believed that cognitive development is strongly influenced by:
A) social and cultural factors.
B) heredity.
C) spurts of brain growth, which occur every 6 months until age 14.
D) the opportunity to actively explore one's physical environment.

A) social and cultural factors.

24. The time at which adolescents begin to go out on dates is most strongly influenced by:
A) physical maturation.
B) their parents.
C) whether they have a driver's license and access to a car.
D) cultural and social expectations, such as when friends begin to date.

D) cultural and social expectations, such as when friends begin to date.

25. Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development held that:
A) personality is determined by how childhood conflicts are resolved and is typically fixed by age 8.
B) psychosocial development begins in early adulthood, when personal identity has stabilized.
C) by middle adulthood, psychosocial development is complete.
D) psychosocial development continues throughout the lifespan, with each stage marked by a particular challenge for further psychological development.

D) psychosocial development continues throughout the lifespan, with each stage marked by a particular challenge for further psychological development.

26. Which of the following represents the correct order of the four psychosocial conflicts that characterize the adolescent and adult years in Erikson's theory?
A) identity versus role confusion, generativity versus stagnation, intimacy versus isolation, ego integrity versus despair
B) identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation, ego integrity versus despair
C) intimacy versus isolation, identity versus role confusion, generativity versus stagnation, ego integrity versus despair
D) industry versus inferiority, identity versus role confusion, generativity versus stagnation, ego integrity versus despair

B) identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation, ego integrity versus despair

27. How does culture affect moral reasoning?
A) Culture has no effect on moral reasoning, as Kohlberg's stages of moral development are universal.
B) Members of collectivistic cultures are more likely to attain stage 6 reasoning.
C) Collectivistic cultures tend to stress interdependence and concern for the welfare of others and put less emphasis on individual rights and justice.
D) Collectivistic cultures tend to stress individual rights and put less emphasis upon care and responsibility for others.

C) Collectivistic cultures tend to stress interdependence and concern for the welfare of others and put less emphasis on individual rights and justice.

28. At what age do people reach their intellectual peak?
A) in their twenties
B) in their forties
C) in their teens
D) in their seventies

B) in their forties

29. Mrs. Hall has always enjoyed quiet, solitary pursuits, such as gardening and reading. Now that she is almost 80, the activity theory of aging would predict that her life satisfaction will be highest if she:
A) disengages from those activities.
B) joins several senior citizen groups, travels, and takes up new hobbies that force her to interact with other people.
C) continues to pursue the activities that she has always enjoyed.
D) enters a nursing home.

C) continues to pursue the activities that she has always enjoyed.

30. By "ego integrity" Erik Erikson meant:
A) maintaining continuity in one's activity level throughout the lifespan.
B) expressing unselfish concern for the welfare of the next generation.
C) maintaining a sense of connectedness and intimacy with others throughout the lifespan.
D) the feeling that one's life has been meaningful.

D) the feeling that one's life has been meaningful.

31. Identify the researcher who proposed that dying people go through five distinct stages.
A) Robert Kastenbaum
B) Elisabeth Kьbler-Ross
C) Erik Erikson
D) Lawrence Kohlberg

B) Elisabeth Kьbler-Ross

32. Anxiety about death tends to _____ in middle adulthood and _____ in late adulthood.
A) decrease; peak
B) peak; decrease
C) reach its lowest point; reach its highest point
D) increase; peak

B) peak; decrease

33. Parents who are demanding but unresponsive to their children's needs are called _____, while parents who are demanding yet responsive to their children's needs are called _____.
A) authoritative; permissive
B) authoritarian; authoritative
C) permissive; indulgent
D) indifferent; authoritarian

B) authoritarian; authoritative

34. Overall, researchers have found that the _____ style of parenting is associated with children who are well-adjusted, competent, receive higher grades, and are less likely than their peers to get into trouble.
A) authoritarian
B) permissive-indulgent
C) permissive-indifferent
D) authoritative

D) authoritative

35. Which of the following is NOT recommended as an effective way for parents to foster psychological health in their children?
A) combine parental control with affection, responsiveness to the child's needs, and flexibility
B) consider the child's temperament, age, and stage of cognitive development in setting reasonable expectations for the child's behavior
C) expect even very young children to think and behave like miniature adults
D) listen to the child and provide plenty of warmth and affection

C) expect even very young children to think and behave like miniature adults

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