Biochemistry Unit 2!!

76 terms by elizabethwiggans

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cytosine

the pyrimidine nitrogenous base that pairs with guanine

guanine

the purine nitrogenous base that pairs with cytosine

adenine

the purine nitrogenous base that pairs with thymine

thymine

the pyrimidine nitrogenous base that pairs with adenine

uracil

the replacement nitrogenous base for thymine in RNA

adenine, guanine

purine nitrogenous bases

cytosine, thymine, uracil

pyrimidine nitrogenous bases

nucleotide

deoxyribose sugar molecule

ribose sugar molecule

phosphate molecule

nucleotide

the combination of a nitrogenous base, sugar, and phosphate molecule

adenine, thymine

the nitrogenous bases that bind together with double hydrogen bonds

cytosine, guanine

the nitrogenous bases the bind together with triple hydrogen bonds

semi-conservative

the type of replication that DNA utilizes where each new double helix created is formed from one old and one new strand of DNA

origins of replication

places in the DNA double helix where replication starts

DNA Polymerase III

the enzyme in DNA replication that builds the new nucleotides for DNA

DNA Polymerase I

the enzyme in DNA replication that takes out the DNA primer and fills it in with DNA nucleotides

RNA Polymerase

the enzyme in DNA replication that acts as a primase, placing RNA primers to allow for DNA replication to start

primer

a set of RNA nucleotides that tell DNA polymerase where to begin in DNA replication

ligase

an enzyme in DNA replication that fixes the gap between Okazaki fragments by building phosphodiester bonds

gyrase

an enzyme in DNA replication that uncoils the DNA double helix

helicase

an enzyme in DNA replication that unzips the DNA double helix

single-stranded binding proteins

proteins used in DNA replication that bind to the strands of DNA to prevent them from coiling back up during replication

okazaki fragment

fragments of DNA found on the lagging strand during DNA replication

leading strand

the strand of DNA that is build continuously in the 5'--> 3' direction

lagging strand

the strand of DNA that is built discontinuously

replication fork

the point in the DNA where the gyrase and helicase enzymes act to begin replication

intron

uncoded pieces of mRNA that are spliced out during transcription

exon

the coded portions of mRNA that are saved and exit the nucleus during transcription

snRNP

small nuclear ribonucleoproteins that attach to the mRNA at the introns to splice them away

splicesosome

the combination of snRNPs and introns that are removed during transcription from the mRNA

3' poly A tail

a tail placed on the mRNA that consists of many adenine nucleotides that helps protect the mRNA

5' methyl cap

a cap placed on the mRNA to help protect the mRNA's stability

transcription

the synthesis of mRNA from DNA

TATA box

the area on a DNA molecule in which transcription begins

operon

the purpose of ____________ is to conserve resources, insert genes and regulate its production, and regulate protein synthesis

lac operon

a type of operon controlled by lactose

ara operon

a type of operon controlled by arabinose

operator

the portion of the operon where the repressor binds to (gene)

regulator

the portion of the operon that makes the repressor protein (gene)

promoter

the portion of the operon where the RNA polymerase binds (gene)

repressor

a protein on the operon that binds to the operator and inhibits mRNA production

lactose

a sugar that binds to the repressor in the lac operon, removes it from the plasmid, and allows for mRNA production to occur

operon

consists of the regulator, promoter, operator, and the XYZ genes

ori

the origin of replication where RNA synthesis begins in an operon

permease

an enzyme coded for in the lac operon that allows for direct import of lactose into the cell

lactase

an enzyme coded for in the lac operon that breaks down lactose

lactose

inducer of the lac operon

griffith

the scientist who injected the R and S strains into mice to determine that DNA is the transforming agent

avery

the scientists that took 6 test tubes of heat killed s strain DNA to determine that DNA is the transforming agent

meselson and stahl

the scientists who figured out that DNA replication is semi-conservative by growing generations of different weights of DNA and centrifuging them to determine new weights

hershey and chase

scientists who tagged a virus with a radioactive sulfur protein and a radioactive phosphorus DNA to confirm that DNA is the genetic material

chargaff

the scientist who discovered that base pairs are complementary and that the composition of DNA varies

franklin

the scientist who took of picture of x-ray diffraction of DNA to determine its double helix structure

watson and crick

the scientists who pooled together information from other scientists to create the first model of a DNA double helix

lytic

the viral cycle in which the virus injects the nucleic acid into the cell, it is incorporated, and immediately takes over protein synthesis until the host cell explodes to spread the virus

lysogenic

the viral cycle in which the cycle stops after the nucleic acid is incorporated and the cell continues to live and reproduce with the viral DNA until it reaches an organism or cell where it becomes lytic

mRNA molecules

"working tapes" of instructions that are carried to the ribosomes

amino acid

DNA encodes these sequences to control protein synthesis

proteins

the molecule that is synthesized in the ribosomes of the cell

RNA

the molecular component of the splicesosome that catalyzes the excision reation during mRNA processing

virus

consists of a nucleic acid genome and and protein capsid

metabolite

this binds to the repressor protein and inactivates it in a repressible operon

present

transcription of an inducible operon starts when the pathway's substrate is _________

lytic

the viral cycle in which a large number of phages are released at one time

transformation

the assimilation of external DNA into a cell

hydrogen bonds

the type of bonds between nitrogenous bases in DNA

plasmid DNA

small circles of DNA outside the chromosome in bacteria

restriction enzymes

enzymes that cut DNA into short segments

DNA Polymerase

the enzyme that acts as a proofreader in DNA replication

TATA box

the promoter site in mRNA synthesis

stop codon

the release factor in protein synthesis

translation

protein synthesis

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