Important People in Colonial America

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John Winthrop

As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.

John Rolfe

He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.

Pocahontas

a Powhatan woman (the daughter of Powhatan) who befriended the English at Jamestown and is said to have saved Captain John Smith's life (1595-1617)

Lord Baltimore

Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.

John Mason

he founded New Hampshire in 1630 as an escape for those restricted by religious and economic rules made by Puritans

William Penn

Penn, an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.

John Smith

John Smith took over the leadership role of the English Jamestown settlement in 1608. Most people in the settlement at the time were only there for personal gain and did not want to help strengthen the settlement. Smith therefore told the people, "people who do not work do not eat." His leadership saved the Jamestown settlement from collapsing.

Duke of York

- Charles II gave the entire area between Connecticut and Maryland to his brother. This created a problem with the Dutch who occupied this area. In 1664 English forces capture New Amsterdam without a fight and the rest of the Dutch settlements soon followed. He gave New jersey to Lord Berkely and Sir George Carteret.

James Oglethorpe

Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.

Roger Williams

A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south

George Carteret

Co-founded New Jersey with John Berkeley, they split, he got East Jersey, sold it to twelve others

Anne Hutchinson

A religious dissenter whose ideas provoked an intense religious and political crisis in the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1636 and 1638. She challenged the principles of Massachusetts's religious and political system. Her ideas became known as the heresy of Antinomianism, a belief that Christians are not bound by moral law. She was latter expelled, with her family and followers, and went and settled at Pocasset ( now Portsmouth, R.I.)

William Bradford

a governor of the Plymouth Colony that helped write the Mayflower Compact and set up various programs such as fishing, trade, agricultural industries, etc. and maintained peaceful relationships with the Native Americans, so that the colony could develop

Nathaniel Bacon

a farmer in the backcountry, his resentment of Berkeley and the unbalanced power of the Virginia government, lead to a rebellion, by him and other backcountry farmers. When Berkeley refused to let Bacon and other farmers fight nearby Indians, he went into Jamestown, with his own militia, burned most of the city, and drove Berkeley out of town.

Olaudah Equiano

(1745-1797) African who was sold into slavery and bought his way out-kidnapped as a boy (age 11) from his home he was sold into slavery and sold amongst slave traders many times-he served in the Seven Years' War as a captain's boy and was then sold to a slave trader where he went to the Caribbean-from there a white colonist bought him and he eventually bought his way out of slavery-he went to England to live and published a book about slavery and his experiences-his message was widespread and helped to inspire the abolition of slavery

Metacomet/King Phillip

1639?-1676 Wamponoag sachem who led one of the last Native American battles against the colonist in New England in 1676.

Hernan Cortes

Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)

Conquistadors

spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain

Peninsulares

Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class

Pope

Led An Indian uprising in 1680 where pueblo rebels in an attempt to resist catholicism and Europeans all together destroyed every catholic church in the province and killed scores of priests and hundreds of spanish settlers. Driving the Spanish out of the Southwestern united states for another 15 years.

Fransico Pizzaro

1531- 1533- Defeated Incas and added their territories to Spanish Empire

Indentured Servants

People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.

Ferdinand and Isabella

united Christian Spain; weakened nobility by destroying their castles, weakened Catholic church by gaining right to nominate its important officials, persecuted Jews and Muslims through the Reconquista and Inquisition, finance exploration (Christopher Columbus), acquired large New World Empire (great wealth in silver and gold)

Queen Elizabeth

daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; she succeeded the Catholic Mary I and restored Protestantism to England; during her reign Mary Queen of Scots was executed and the Spanish Armada was defeated; her reign was marked by prosperity and literary genius (1533-1603)

James I

the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings (1566-1625)

Charles I

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649

Charles II

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism

William and Mary

King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.

Quakers

English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania, members of the Society of Friends. Believed that God, in the presence of the Inner Light, was present in all humans. Pacifists. Rejected oaths, sacraments, and all forms of set religious worship

Pilgrims/Separatists

Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands. (p. 487)

Puritans

Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.

Catholics

did not accept the king as head of the church nor did they accept the authority of Anglican bishops or priests. They were viewed as potential traitors who might help Catholic countries overthrow the English king, and were forbidden to practice law or teach school

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