4.1: COMMUNITIES AND ECOSYSTEMS

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Some key terms and questions from 4.1

Ecology

The study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment

organisms

Ecology: The study of relationships between living _________ and between organisms and their environment

relationships

Ecology: The study of ____________between living organisms and between organisms and their environment

environment

Ecology: The study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their ___________

Ecosystem

A community and its abiotic environment

The study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment

Ecology

A community and its abiotic environment

Ecosystem

community

Ecosystem: A _________and its abiotic environment

abiotic

Ecosystem: A community and its _________environment

A group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time

Population

Population

A group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time

species

Population: A group of organisms of the same ______ who live in the same area at the same time

organisms

Population: A group of __________ of the same species who live in the same area at the same time

a group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area

Community

Community

a group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area

a group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area

Community: a group of ____________ living and interacting with each other in an area

area

Community: a group of populations living and interacting with each other in an ______

a group of organisms which can interbreed and produce fertile offspring

species

species

a group of organisms which can interbreed and produce fertile offspring

organisms

species: a group of _______which can interbreed and produce fertile offspring

fertile

species: a group of organisms which can interbreed and produce_________offspring

the environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism

habitat

habitat

the environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism

environment

habitat: the __________in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism

location

habitat: the environment in which a species normally lives or the ________ of a living organism

biosphere

consists of interdependent and interrelated ecosystems

autotroph

producer - organism that uses an external energy source to synthesise organic matter from inorganic raw materials

heterotroph

consumer - organism that ingests other organic matter that is living or recently killed

detritivore

organism that ingests dead organic matter

saprotroph

decomposer - organism that lives in or on dead organic matter, secreting digestic enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion

producer

autotroph

consumer

heterotroph

decomposer

saprotroph

food chain

sequence of trophic relationships, where each member in the sequence feeds on the previous one

trophic

food chain: sequence of ________relationships, where each member in the sequence feeds on the previous one

food web

a diagram of all the trophic relationships in a community

trophic level

the level at which an organism feeds in a food chain

chain

trophic level: the level at which an organism feeds in a food _____

organism

trophic level: the level at which an ________ feeds in a food chain

light

initial energy source for almost all communities

initial

"light is the ______energy source for almost all communities"

energy

"light is the initial _______source for almost all communities"

loss

causes of energy _____ in food chains: material not consumed or material not assimilated, heat loss through cell respiration

respiration

causes of energy loss in food chains: material not consumed or material not assimilated, heat loss through cell ________

consumed

causes of energy loss in food chains: material not ________ or material not assimilated, heat loss through cell respiration

heat

causes of energy loss in food chains: material not consumed or material not assimilated, ____ loss through cell respiration

efficient

when energy transformations take place, the process is commonly only 10 - 20% _______

transformations

when energy ______ take place, the process is commonly only 10 - 20% efficient

energy pyramid

shows the energy flow from one trophic level to the next in a community

energy per unit area per unit time

units of pyramids of energy

energy

"________ can enter and leave an ecosytem, but nutrients must be recycled"

ecosytem

"energy can enter and leave an ________, but nutrients must be recycled"

recycled

"energy can enter and leave an ecosytem, but nutrients must be _________"

nutrients

"energy can enter and leave an ecosytem, but ________ must be recycled"

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