a medication administered to prevent or relieve depression
a felling of apprehension or uneasiness, a fundamental human emotion that produces bodily reactions that prepare us for "fight or flight", is anticipatory; the dreded event or situation has not yet occurred.
a strong,persistant and unwarranted fear of some specific object or situation.
a basic emotion
what is locus ceruleus
a small area of the brain that seems to be active in the regulation of emotions, many of its neurons use norepinephrine
anti-anxiety drugs, preferred medications used to calm and reduce anxiety in people.
define generalized anxiety disorder
disorder characterized by persistant, high levels of anxiety and excessive worry over many life circumstaces that are present on more days than not for more than six months.
An anxiety disorder indicated by a marked and persistent fear of being in places or situations from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing.
define obsessive compulsive disorder characteristics
obsessions(intrusive, repetitive thoughts or images that produce anxiety). or compulsions (the need to perform acts or to dwell on thoughts to reduce anxiety).
define post traumatic stress disorder
A severe anxiety that develops after experiencing a traumatic event (rape, war, natural disaster, abusive childhood, near fatal accident); symptoms: feelings of helplessness, flashbacks, nightmares, impaired concentration and or emotional numbness
define anxiety disorders
Characterized by unpleasant tensions, distress, and avoidance behavior; examples are phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic distress disorder.
define panic attacks
are experianced as intense fear accompanied by symptoms such as a pounding heart, trembling, shortness of breath,or fear of losing control or dying.
define the (types) of panic attacks
1.situationally bound attacks. 2. situationally predisposed attacks. 3.unexpected or uncued attacks.
define panic disorder
Recurrent unexpected panic attacks. At least one of the attacks has been followed by 1 month of 1 of the following: persistent concern about having additional attacks, worry about the implications of the attack, significant change in behavior related to the attacks. Agoraphobia may or may not be present
what is malingering
is intentional production of false or faking symptoms motivated by external incentives, such as obtaining compensation or drugs, avoiding work or military duty, or evading criminal prosecution.
what is facticious
when someone intentionally does something to produce symptoms in self and others.
what is fugue
a dissociative disorder in which a person forgets his or her current life and starts a new one somewhere else
what are differant the types of dissociative amnesia
1.localized: all memory for a short time. 2. selective: loss of details about an incident. 3.systemized: selected TYPES OF INFORMATION. 4. continuous: inability to recall ANY events from a specific time until the present. 5.generalized: a complete loss of memory of the individuals entire life.
define body dysmorphic disorder
preoccupation with an imagined or exaggerated defect in physical appearance
a condition characterized by misinterpretation of physical symptoms and fearing that one has a serious illness despite appropriate medical evaluation and reassurance
what is conversion disorder
demonstrates physical problems or impairments in sensory or motor functions controlled by the voluntary nervous system- such as paraysis, loss of feeling, and deficits in sight or hearing- suggeting a neurological disorder but with no underlying organic cause.
what are dissociative disorders
a group of disorders including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociative identity disorder, and depesonalization disorder, all of which involve some sort of dissociation, or separation, of a part of the persons consciousness, memory, or identity.
what is somatization disorder
somatoform disorder in which the person dramatically complains of a specific symptom such as nausea, difficulty swallowing, or pain for which there is no real physical cause
dissociative identity disorder is
formally known as multiple-personality disorder.
what are somatoform disorders
include somatization, conversion, pain, and body dysmorphic disorders, as well as hypochondriasis
what is localized amnesia
a person remembers nothing that happened during a specific period, most commonly the first few hours or days following some highly traumatic event
what is selective amnesia
Inability to recall only certain incidents associated with a traumatic event
what is systemized amnesia
the loss of memory for a certain category of information
what is generalized amnesia
Inability to recall anything that has happened during the individual's entire lifetime - total loss of memory
what is continuous amnesia
an inability to recall any events that have occurred between a specific time in the past and the present time
two parts of memory are
short and long
what is the origin of dissociative identity disorder
severe psychological trauma
how authentic are reports of formally repressed memories
at this point its not clear on how many cases of genuine "repressed momories" exist, or whether the phenomenon exists at all.
define stess psychosomatic
real physical disorder brought on by a psychological stressor
what are stressors
external events or situations that place a physical or psychological demand on a person
what is stress
is an internal psychological or physiological response to a stressor
define psychophysiological disorder
any physical disorder that has a strong psychological basis or component
what is sudden death syndrome
unexpected abrupt death that seems to have no specific physical basis.
what is acute stress disorder
characterized by the development of severe anxiety, dissociative, and other symptoms that occurs within one month after exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor.
involves a disruption in consciousness, memory, identity, or perception and may be trancient or chronic.
anxiety is a blend of what?
thoughts and feelings characterized by uncontrollability and unpredictability over potentially adverse life events.
people with anxiety have the inability to what?
cope and be calm
anxiety ranges from?
mild to severe
what anxiety effects over all?
1. quality of life. 2. day to day tasks completion
what are the major types of anxieties disorders?
panic(fear based), panic attacks, phobias(generalized,specific,) OCD, acute stress disorder,and PTSD.
what are the major players of dissociative disorders?
identity, memory, and conscienceness.
people with DID show signs of?
two or more distinct or unique personalities.
reasons, causes, and origins.
what are the characteristics of acute stress disorder?
anxiety and dissociative symptoms that occur within a month after exposure to a traumatic stressor.
PTSD is characterized by what?
anxiety,dissociaative, and other symptoms that last for more than a month and that occur as a result of exposure to extreme trauma.
Norman Cousins is credited with suggesting that ______ can improve health.
4 models of stress and illness are?
biological, pyschological,social, and socioculture.
laughter releases what?
1.alarm-vulnerability. 2. resistance-defense. 3. exaustion-symptom-sickness reappears.
behavior and the immune system do what?
even positive changes in life are?
stress is an?
stressors are an?
examples of psychophysiological disorder include?
coronary heart disease,hypertention,migraines, tention, cluster headaches,and astma.
define personality disorder
A chronic, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of perceiving, thinking, and behaving that seriously impairs an individual's ability to function in social or other settings.
define personality type
silimar to being a trait, but instead of being a dimension, a type is a category that is believed to represent the whole of persons characteristics
the dimensions of a persons characteristics or behavior., or parts.