Reptiles & Amphibians

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Reptiles

cold blooded animals characterized by breathing air, producing tough-shelled amniotic eggs, and having skin covered in scales and/or scutes

Crocodylia (large reptiles)

crocodiles, gavials, caimans, and alligators (Order of reptiles)

Rhynchocephalia (lizard-like reptiles)

tuataras (Order of reptiles)

Squamata (scaled reptiles)

lizards, snakes, and worm lizards (Order of reptiles)

Testudines (bony or cartilaginous shelled reptiles)

turtles, tortoises and terrapins (Order of reptiles, superorder Chelonia)

snakes

scaled reptiles

lizards

reptiles with overlapping scales

Amphibians

animals that metamorphose from a juvenile water-breathing form to an adult air-breathing form

Anura (tail-less amphibians)

frogs and toads (Order of amphibians)

Caudata (tailed amphibians)

salamanders and newts (Order of amphibians)

Gymnophiona (limbless amphibians

caecilians (Order of amphibians)

oviparous

produces eggs that hatch outside the body (egg-laying)

ovoviparous

produces eggs that develop and hatch inside the oviducts, nourishment comes from the yolk, live births (egg retention)

viviparous

produces eggs that develop and receive nourishment by blood from the placenta, live births

ecdysis

process of shedding

dysecdysis

difficulty in shedding

Reptiles (and frogs) inhabit every continent with the exception of?

Antarctica

tail autotomy

ability to detach tail

didactyl

toes are fused into a group of two and a group of three

diurnal

active during the daytime

chromatophores

pigment cells that change the color

cloaca

common collecting chamber of the digestive and genitourinary tracts (from the coprodeum & urodeum)

proctodeum

common chamber opening to the vent

lizards, turtles do not have a?

diaphragm (can not clear lungs by coughing)

Jacobson's organ (vomeronasal organ)

tongue transfers particles to these sensory cells

ectothermic

lacking an internal mechanism for regulating body heat, cold blooded

herbivore

plant-eating animal

insectivore

insect eating animal

carnivore

flesh (meat) eating animal

omnivore

eats plants and animals

metabolic bone disease

nutritional bone disease of reptiles (Caused by low calcium intake, low vitamin D3 intake, or excess phosphorus intake)

gout

result of excessive protein matabolism or catabolism (causes/caused by digestive, kidney disease or dehydration)

dystocia

retained eggs (egg binding)

terrestrial

living on land

arboreal

living in trees

aquatic

living in water

semi-aquatic

living half in water

marine

living in the sea

reptiles and amphibian heart?

consist of 3 chambers; right/left atria and a single ventricle

snake lungs?

only have a single right lung and a small non functioning left lung

snakes excrete uric acid because they do not have a?

urinary bladder

vitellogenesis

production of yolk

pinkies

baby mice, no fur present

fuzzies

baby mice that have just gotten fur

hoppers

juvenile mice that have fur

pups

nursing rats (unweaned)

weanlings

baby rats (weaned)

cloacal prolapse

prolapse of colon, hemipenes, uterus or oviduct

salmonellosis

zoonotic bacterial disease carried by most reptiles

tortoise

terrestrial chelonians

turtle

semi-aquatic chelonians

terrapins

semi-aquatic hard shelled chelonians

turtle shell (2 parts?)

carapace (top part), plastron (bottom part)

scutes

hard scales covering a turtle's shell (keratinized epithelium)

aquatic turtles (exchange oxygen?)

through the mucosal surface of the oral cavity and cloaca

soft shelled turtles (exchange oxygen?)

through their skin

vertical pupil

excellent for night vision

horizontal pupil

excellent for day vision

all salamanders and frogs have?

poison glands

amphibians exhibit four modalities of respiration

branchial (gill respiration), buccopharyngeal (air gulping, gular or buccal pumping), cutaneous and pulmonic

celiocentesis

removal of fluid from the abdomen by centesis (on amphibians)

spectacle

fused eyelids of snakes

male snake anatomy

right and left testicle and a pair of hemipenes (during copulation, only one hemipenis is used)

female reptile anatomy

pair of ovaries and oviducts (no true uterus)

snake, turtle sexual maturity

determined by the size, not age (1-2 years)

gravid

pregnant; carrying, developing young or eggs

salamanders

tailed amphibians (prefer semi aquatic environments, uses internal fertilization)

frogs

tail-less amphibians (prefer semi aquatic environments, long rear legs, uses external fertilization)

toads

tail-less amphibians (no teeth, prefer dryer environments, short, thick rear legs, has poison glands behind eyes, use external fertilization)

snake reproduction

most snake are oviparous, all boas, vipers and garter snakes are ovoviparous

frog reproduction

are oviparous, tend to lay eggs in clusters

turtle reproduction

are oviparous, tend to lay eggs in long chains

salamander reproduction

are oviparous (many salamanders- the male deposits a packet of sperm called a spermatophore onto the ground. The female then pulls it into her cloaca where fertilization occurs internally)

lizard reproduction

are oviparous or ovoviparous

amphibian metamorphosis

formation of four legs, gills are replaced by other respiratory organs, skin changes and develops glands to avoid dehydration, eyes develop eyelids and adapt to vision outside the water, An eardrum is developed to lock the middle ear, In frogs and toads, the tail disappears

reptile penis (or hemipenes)

isn't connected to the urinary tract and is strictly an organ of reproduction

venom

in injected

poison

touched or ingested

feral

wild, untamed

brille

transparent caps as protective eye coverings (snakes do not have moveable eyelids)

4 reptile diseases

gout (high levels of uric acid), Salmonellosis, Infectious Stomatitis (Mouth Rot), dystocia (Egg Binding), Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD, low calcium, vit D/high phosphorous)

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