TKAM CH. 20-26 Reading Notes

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Why had Dolphus Raymond made himself into a town outcast? What commentary is he making about the town and its values?

He actually does not drink alot, but he thinks his title is funny and amusing. He says that the town is racist.

In his summation speech to the jury, what does Atticus describe as Mayella's offense?

She broke the time-honored code of their society and her actions were motivated by guilt.

In his summation speech to the jury, how does Atticus partially excuse Mr. Ewell's actions?

By saying that he did what any god freaking, persevering, respectable white man would do under the circumstances.

In his summation speech to the jury, where does Atticus say all men must truly be equal?

Pg. 274, 205

Why does the author make it seem like an airtight case in Atticus' favor just prior to the jury's decision?

To substantiate suspense for the reader

What does Jem think when Atticus calls them from the balcony?

She thinks that Atticus has won the trial

How does Scout know the verdict before it is read?

Because a jury would never look at a defendant if convicted, and when the jury came in, not one of them looked at Tom Robinson.

What is Cal's reaction to the children having been at the trial? What is Alexandra's?

Cal was mad at Jem for taking Scout, and she yelled at all three children. Aunt Alexandra almost faints when she sees them but doesn't say a word because Atticus is letting them go back.

What is Atticus' response to Alexandra's attempt to say the children shouldn't have witnessed the trial?

He says that they need to learn to cope with people in their own town.

What is Atticus' response to Jem's question about how the jury could have convicted Tom?

He says that they have done it before and they will do it again but you cannot give up.

What causes Atticus' eyes to fill with tears?

The black communities show of appreciation through food and thanks.

What does Miss Maudie say about Atticus?

That some people in this world were meant to do the unpleasant work for us and Atticus is one of those people.

What had Bob Ewell done to Atticus after the trial? How does Atticus explain his behavior?

Bob Ewell spat in Atticus's face, cursed at him and threatened to kill him. Atticus says he destroyed his last shred of credibility at the trial and he needs to take his anger out on someone --> Atticus is just glad it was him and not Mayella.

Why did Atticus say he selected a Cunningham for the jury?

Atticus knew the Cunningham's had respected the Finches.

As a result of the conviction, Jem has a new theory about Boo Radley's seclusion: what is it?

They said he stayed shut up in the house because he wants to stay inside.

When Jem suggests juries should be done away with, what does Atticus suggest should be done instead?

Change the law so only judges have the power of fixing the penalty in capital cases.

How does Atticus explain the fact that women can't serve on juries in Alabama?

To protect frail ladies from sordid cases like Tom's ladies would interrupt by asking too many questions.

After their discussion of the Mrunas, what do the ladies of the missionary society do?

They talked about Helen Robinson

What does Mrs. Merriweather say the cooks and field hands did after the trial? Why?

They skulked around, were dissatisfied with the verdict, and grumbled all day the next day.

What is Mrs. Merriweather's view of Northerners? Why does she hold this view?

Says they are hypocrites and have sin on their shoulders because they tell blacks they are as equal as whites but still stay away from them. At least southerners are honest with their feelings.

What news does Atticus bring about Tom Robinson?

He is dead/ tried to escape jail and got shot 17 times.

How does Atticus explain what Tom had done?

Tom was tired of white men's chances and decided to take his own.

What is Scout's assessment of Jem's changed behavior after he won't let her kill the roly poly?

That he was getting more like a girl everyday.

Why is Maycomb only interested in the news about Tom's death for two days?

Tom's death was typical of what a black man would do --> cut, run, have no plan, no thought about the future.

What does Mr. Underwood say in his editorial?

A sin to kill cripples --> referred to Tom's killing to the slaughter of songbirds by hunters and children.

What conclusion does Scout come to about Tom after reading Mr. Underwood's article?

That Tom had no chance and he was a dead man as soon as Mayella opened her mouth and screamed.

What satirical points are made on the subject of education?

Illustrated in the incident with Miss Gates/ Hitler/ the courthouse --> best lessons are learned in the real world.

What does Scout fantasize about?

Meeting Boo Radley

List three things that are perplexing Scout at the beginning of the summer

Jems aging, Dill not being there, Jem not being there

Describe the differences between Calpurnia's church and the white people's church. Why do you think Harper Lee presents us with this contrast at this point in the novel?

In Calpurnia's church, it looks all scrappy and they also dont have hyms they repeat after Reverend Sykes.

Explain what Scout fids unusual about Calpurnia's manner of speaking at the Negro church and how Calpurnia explains this to her.

Calpurnia starts talking like the rest of the negros instead of her formal english she usually speaks around Scout.

What do Jem and Scout learn about the injustice of white people during their visit to Calpurnia's church?

That the white people take everything good for themselves and give the African Americans there cruddy stuff like the worn down church.

Why does the congregation sing the hymns by "lining"?

Because they do not have enough hymn books

Who is sitting on the Finch's front porch when they get home?

Aunt Alexandra

How does Atticus explain Aunt Alexandra's arrival? How do the children feel about it?

He thinks his kids need a mother figure around the house but the kids do not agree with Atticus' decision.

What sense of values does Aunt Alexandra try to impart to the children?

more manners

Why does Scout cry?

Aunt Alexandra tells Scout that she is not girly enough

How does Atticus respond to Alexandra's suggestion that they do not need Cal anymore?

He says that they could not last a day without Cal.

What does Scout say she had never heard of or seen before, and how does it maker her feel?

Anyone quarrel with Atticus --> makes her uncomfortable

Why did Dill run away from home? What is different between Dill's relationship with his parents and Scout and Jem's relationship with Atticus?

Dill said his new dad was nice but paid no attention to Dill and acted like they did not want him. Atticus on the other hand shows affection and love for Jem and Scout unlike Dill's new dad.

What evidence do we have that Jem is starting to grow up and is beginning to identify with the adult world? Be specific.

Jem told Atticus that Dill ran away.

Why did Heck Tate and the men pay a visit to Atticus? How did Jem and Scout react to this?

To discuss Tom Robinson's case; the kids spy on them and listen to everything --> they thought a gang was after Atticus.

How did the gang that met Atticus at the jail compare with the first group that came to his home? What was the result of Scout's combination of innocence and straightforwardness when she addressed Mr. Cunningham?

The gang at the jail was unfamiliar to Scout and they were there to mess with Tom Robinson; Scout's innocence and straightforwardness resulted in the men not wanting to be violent.

What had Mr. Underwood done during the conversation at the jail?

He protected Atticus above with a shot gun.

What is Dill's latest plan to get Boo Radley to come out?

To put lemon drops from the back door to the front yard so he would follow the line of lemon drops.

How is the author slowly building a web of tension leading up to the trial?

A chain of mysterious events about the trial happens and we do not know exactly why --> this is part of Lee's narrative technique.

How would you characterize the crowd that has come to the trial? Why do you think Harper Lee described them in such detail?

Very diverse groups --> shows diversity within the town and how all people were affected by the trial.

What kind of a judge was Judge Taylor?

Informal, amiable, learned in the law, permitted smoking, but he does not indulge himself.

What subtle change does Scout notice in Atticus?

It came out when Aunt Alexandra moved in. He was not as confident.

How does Atticus explain "mobs" to the children?

He says a mob is made up of people you know, a gang of wild animals that can be stopped, simply because they are still human.

What is Miss Maudie's reaction to everyone wanting to go to the trial?

She does not want to go because she thinks he is innocent and does not deserve this punishment.

Why does Jem say the "mixed children" are sad?

He thinks that they cannot belong in the white group or the African American group because they are both.

What news does Scout overhear about Atticus defending Tom Robinson? How does she feel about it?

She finds out Atticus is appointed there for he was forced. So she could have used it to defend herself against bullies.

With whom do the children sit in the courtroom?

Reverend Sykes

WHy do you think Harper Lee pays meticulous attention to every aspect of the courtroom?

So the reader can feel the tension throughout the courtroom/ because it is the main event

On what single key issue does Atticus build his case? What kinds of strategies does he use to elicit the truth?

That Bob Ewell and Mayella are lying -- he is asking a lot of questions to try and confuse him.

What question does Atticus ask the sheriff three times?

Did anyone call a doctor?

How does Jem convince Reverend Sikes it is OK for Scout to stay in the courtroom?

He says that Scout does not know what anything means in the court and Atticus cannot see that far.

What excuse does Mr. Ewell give for not running after Tom Robinson?

He said he recognized the face and knew it was Tom Robinson.

Why does Mayella think Atticus is mocking her?

Be cause addresses her as Miss Mayella and is asking her weirdly easy questions.

What comic incident is related in Chapter 27 and what function does it serve?

Misses Frutties and Fruttie's furniture stealing incident explains why.....

What historical figure does Miss Gates condemn? Why does her condemnation confuse Scout?

Adolf Hitler; Scout thinks it is not right to prosecute anyone, yet Miss Gates condemns Hitler and is prejudice against blacks at home.

After Jem tries to comfort Scout for coming on stage at the wrong time, what does Scout realize about Jem?

That he was becoming almost as good as Atticus at making her feel right when things went wrong.

Why does Bob Ewell lose his WPA job? Whom does he blame?

Because he is lazy; this is a historical allusion

What details in Chapters 27 and 28 add to the mounting tension before Jem and Scout are attacked?

Atticus and Aunt Alexandra didnt show up. Hallowing, Bob Ewell is terrorizing people, warm night no moon, pitch black, cloudy (kids cannot see where they are walking), and hearing noises.

When Jem hears someone following Scout and him, who does he conclude it is?

Cecil Jacob --> suspense

How does Scout know the body she touches with her toes is not Jem's?

His face is not shaven and he smelled of whiskey.

When Scout reaches the street, what does she see in the light?

A person (Boo Radley) carrying Jem.

What, according to Dr. Reynolds, is Jem's condition?

He is unconscious but he should be fine and he has a broken arm.

Who is in Jem's room besides Scout, Atticus, and Alexandra?

Boo Radley

What news does Sheriff Tate give Atticus?

Bob Ewell was found dead -- he was stabbed in the chest with a kitchen knife.

Why hadn't Atticus or any of the neighbors heard the children yelling?

They were listening to the radio.

What conclusion does Sheriff Tate come to about Scout's costume?

That is saved her life.

According to the sheriff, what kind of man was Bob Ewell?

He is one of those men you have to shoot before you say hi to him and he is not even worth the bullet.

When Scout points to the man who saved Jem and looks at him closely, what does she realize? What does she say and do?

That it is Boo, she tells him "hi"

Why does Atticus suggest they go to the porch instead of the living room?

The living room lights were too strong for Boo.

Who does Atticus think killed Bob Ewell?

Jem

What does Sheriff Tate say about Bob Ewell's death?

Bob Ewell fell on his own knife.

When Atticus continues to argue with the sheriff about protecting Jem, what does the sheriff yell?

"** *** it, I'm not thinking of Jem!"

What does the sheriff say to the townspeople, including his wife, would do if they knew the truth about who killed Bob Ewell? What does the sheriff say would be a sin?

Bring Boo into the lime light and make him cakes. It is a sin to drag a man and his shy ways into the lime light...if it were any other man, it would be different.

What insight is gained into Heck Tate's character?

He is reasonable/fair.

What is Scout's response when Atticus asks her if she can understand that Mr. Ewell fell on his own knife?

She says she can, she hugs and kisses him and says it would sort of be like killing a mockingbird.

After Scout takes Boo home, what makes her sad?

That they had never put back into the tree what they got out of it -- they had given Boo nothing.

As Scout tells Atticus the story of the Gray Ghost, what does she say about Stoner's Boy? What is Atticus' response?

That he had not done anything terrible and that he was actually really nice -- Atticus says most people are once you finally see them.

Explain why Atticus has Tom Robinson stand up?

So everyone could see that his left arm is 12 inches shorter than his right.

Why does Atticus look like "his stomach hurt" when he proves the case against Mayella?

Because he really feels sorry for her.

Why does Scout pity Mayella even though she was testifying against Tom Robinson?

Because she thinks she must be the most loneliest person in the world -- she is a "mixed child".

Compare Scout and Dill's reactions to Mr. Gilmer's prosecution. Why do you think Dill becomes so upset when Mr. Gilmer cross examines Tom?

Scout thinks he is just doing his job, but Dill is upset at how he is treating Tom -- He thinks that no one should be treated that way, regardless of his skin color.

Why does Tom say he ran?

Because he was scared he would have to face up to what he did not do in court.

What mistake does Tom make when Mr. Gilmer asks him to explain why he helped Mayella?

He says he felt sorry for her.

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