How did they govern themselves?
Each Tribe remaining independent in all manners pertaining to local self-government. It created a Great Council of Sachems, who were limited in number, equal in rank and authority, and invested with supreme powers over all matters pertaining to the Confederacy. Fifty sachemships were created and named in perpetuity in central gentes of the several tribes; with power in these gentes to fill vacancies, as often as they occurred, by election from among their respective members, and with the further power to depose from office for cause; but the right to invest these sachems with office was reserved to the General Council. The sachems of the Confederacy were also sachems in their respective tribes, and with the chiefs of these tribes formed the Council of each, which was supreme over all matters pertaining to the tribe exclusively. Unanimity in the Council of the Confederacy was made essential to every public act. In the General Council the sachems voted by tribes, which gave to each tribe a veto over the others. The Council of each tribe had power to convene the General Council; but the latter had no power to convene itself. The General Council was open to the orators of the people for the discussion of public questions; but the Council alone decided. The Confederacy had no chief executive magistrate, or official head. Experiencing the necessity for a general military commander, they created the office in a dual form, that one might neutralize the other. The two principal war-chiefs were made equal in powers. Equality between the sexes had a strong adherence in the Confederacy, and the women held real power. The Grand Council of Chiefs were chosen by the clan mothers, and if any leader failed to comply with the Great Law of Peace, he could be removed by the clan mothers. Edit
Explain the roots of our modern democracy as we see them in the early English colonies. Include the House of Burgesses, the Mayflower Compact, and other freedoms
House of Burgesses, the first popularly elected legislature in America. It first met as a one-house assembly in Virginia on 30 July 1619, with a governor, Sir George Yeardley, four members of the council, and two burgesses from each of the boroughs, to preserve the same rights as the residents of Britain for Virginia's freeholders, the white male property holders. The house determined the eligibility of its own members, passed local laws, carried out the provisions of the governor and the charter, and regulated taxes. It developed into a two-house legislature, with little English influence by the mid-seventeenth century. On 29 June 1776, the house declared Virginia's independence from Great Britain and wrote the state's first constitution. Mayflower Compact (1620) Document signed by 41 male passengers on the Mayflower before landing at Plymouth (Massachusetts). Concerned that some members might leave to form their own colonies, William Bradford and others drafted the compact to bind the group into a political body and pledge members to abide by any laws that would be established. The document adapted a church covenant to a civil situation and was the basis of the colony's government. Edit
What was mercantilism?
The view, current in early modern Europe, that one nation's gain is only achieved by another nation's loss; that trade between states is a 'zero sum game'. According to this view, a trading nation can only prosper if it encourages the export of manufactures and the import of raw materials, but discourages the import of manufactures and the export of domestically produced raw materials, through the erection of tariff barriers. Edit
What were the Navigation Acts? How did they make Britain more powerful?
The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which restricted the use of foreign shipping in the trade of England (later the Kingdom of Great Britain and its colonies). Resentment against the Navigation Acts was a cause of the Anglo-Dutch Wars and the American Revolutionary War. Edit
The Quartering Act
The Quartering Act of 2 June 1774, one of the Coercion Acts, was passed in Parliament after the Boston Tea Party in 1773. The Quartering Act provided that local authorities must provide quarters for British troops. If they failed to do so, the governor might compel the use of occupied buildings. Though two previous quartering acts had passed in the 1760s, this third act engendered greater opposition as tensions mounted between Parlaiment and Boston Whigs. The Boston patriots refused to repair the empty buildings that Gen. Thomas Gage had procured for quarters and thus forced the British troops to remain camped on the Boston Common until November 1774. Edit
The Stamp Act
(1765) British parliamentary measure to tax the American colonies. To pay for costs resulting from the French and Indian War, the British sought to raise revenue through a stamp tax on printed matter. A common revenue device in England, the tax was vigorously opposed by the colonists, whose representatives had not been consulted. Colonists refused to use the stamps, and mobs intimidated stamp agents. The Stamp Act Congress, with representatives from nine colonies, met to petition Parliament to repeal the act. Faced with additional protests from British merchants whose exports had been reduced by colonial boycotts, Parliament repealed the act (1766) Edit
The Townshend Acts
Four acts of the British Parliament in 1767 that imposed duties on the import of paint, glass, paper, lead, and tea to the North American colonies. The acts also called for quartering of British troops in the colonies. Though eventually repealed (except for the tax on tea), the acts were the source of resentment and led to the famous charge of "taxation without representation" and directly to the Boston Massacre. Edit
The Writs of Assistance
General search warrant used by the British in the American colonies. The warrants authorized customhouse officers, with the assistance of a sheriff, to search any house or ship for smuggled goods, without requiring them to specify the place or the goods. The legality of the writs was challenged by the colonists in the 1760s, and they became a major grievance in the years leading up to the American Revolution. Edit
The Boston Massacre
A clash between British troops and townspeople in Boston in 1770, before the Revolutionary War. The British fired into a crowd that was threatening them, killing five, including Crispus Attucks. The soldiers had been sent to help the government maintain order and were resented even before this incident. The killings increased the colonists' inclination toward revolution. Edit
The Tea Act
(1773) British legislation giving a tea monopoly in the American colonies to the British East India Co. It adjusted the duty regulations to allow the failing company to sell its large tea surplus below the prices charged by colonial competitors. The act was opposed by colonists as another example of taxation without representation. Resistance to the act resulted in the Boston Tea Party. Edit
The Intolerable Acts
(1774) Four punitive measures enacted by the British Parliament against the American colonies. Boston's harbour was closed until restitution was made for the tea destroyed in the Boston Tea Party; the Massachusetts colony's charter was annulled and a military governor installed; British officials charged with capital offenses could go to England for trial; and arrangement for housing British troops in American houses was revived. The Quebec Act added to these oppressive measures. The acts, called "intolerable" by the colonists, led to a convening of the Continental Congress. Edit
Adams, Samuel (1722-1803) revolutionary politician, signer of the Declaration of Independence, and governor of Massachusetts (1793-97), born in Boston, Massachusetts. A cousin of John Adams, Samuel Adams served on the Board of War of the Second Continental Congress. A spokesperson for the Sons of Liberty, he took part in the Boston Tea Party. Edit
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was a leader of America's Revolutionary generation. His character and thought were shaped by a blending of Puritan heritage, Enlightenment philosophy, and the New World environment. He signed the Declaration of Independence and attended the Constitution Convention. Edit
A pamphlet written in America by Englishman Thomas Paine, published on January 10, 1776. It called for American independence and a union of the American colonies, and as propaganda, it influenced colonists to pursue both in the Revolutionary War. Paine's "Crisis" papers, issued from 1776 to 1783, were each signed "Common Sense." Edit
How was the D. Of I. influenced by John Locke and other thinkers?
John Locke: in his two treatises of government he stated the inaliable rights: life, liberty, and property (which the declaration changed to the pursuit of happiness). Rousseau: the social contract- stated that the people gave power to their representatives, but if ever the government infringes on their rights, then the people have a right to rebel. Edit
Lexington and Concord
(April 19, 1775) Initial skirmishes between British soldiers and American colonists that marked the beginning of the American Revolution. En route from Boston to seize the colonists' military stores at Concord, Mass., the British force of 700 was met at Lexington by 77 local minutemen (see minuteman) alerted by Paul Revere and others. Which side fired the first shot is unclear, and resistance soon ended. The British moved on to nearby Concord, where they were met by more than 300 American patriots and were forced to withdraw. On their march back to Boston, they were continually harried by colonists firing from behind barns, trees, and roadside walls. Deaths totaled 273 British and 95 Americans. Edit
(June 17, 1775) the first major battle of the Revolutionary War, and a defeat of militiamen who had fortified Breed's and Bunker Hills on the Charlestown Peninsula north of Boston. Though many of the colonial forces fought bravely, and British regulars required three costly assaults to achieve the ground, only later did general colonial sentiment regard the decision to fight here as more than a misguided adventure. Edit
(1777) Engagements in the American Revolution. British troops under John Burgoyne marched from Canada to join with other British troops, and, after camping at Saratoga, N.Y., engaged the Continental Army under Horatio Gates at the First Battle of Saratoga (September 19), also known as the Battle of Freeman's Farm. Failing to break the American lines, the British faced a counterattack led by Benedict Arnold at the Second Battle of Saratoga (October 7), or the Battle of Bemis Heights. With his forces reduced to 5,000 men, Burgoyne began to retreat, but Gates, with 20,000 men, surrounded the British at Saratoga and forced their surrender (October 17). The American victory induced the French to offer open recognition and military aid. Edit
(1741-1801). Remembered mainly as a mercenary traitor during the American independence war, Arnold was also one of the ablest commanders on either side. He led from the front and was twice seriously wounded doing so. He preferred deeds to words and, in the end, cash in hand from the British over promises from people he had reason to believe would renege. Edit
What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris/ Versailles?
The treaty of Versailles, at the end of the American War of Independence, was less disadvantageous to Britain than had seemed likely, partly because of Rodney's naval victory at the Saints in April 1782 and partly because of the failure of de Bussy's expedition to India. The independence of the thirteen American colonies had to be recognized, but that had been inevitable after the surrender at Yorktown in 1781. The Americans retained their fishing rights off Newfoundland and Congress promised 'earnestly to recommend' the restitution of estates to the loyalists. In the West Indies, France restored her conquests, save for Tobago, and in India Britain restored France's conquered possessions. Britain gave up Florida to Spain, retained Gibraltar, for which Spain had pressed strongly, but ceded Minorca. Edit
What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?
Early U.S. constitution (1781 - 89) under the government by the Continental Congress, replaced in 1787 by the U.S. Constitution. It provided for a confederation of sovereign states and gave the Congress power to regulate foreign affairs, war, and the postal service, to control Indian affairs, and to borrow money. Under the Articles, Congress settled state claims to western lands and established the Northwest Ordinances. But Congress had no power to enforce its requests to the states for money or troops, and by late 1786 the government had ceased to be effective, as was demonstrated by Shays's Rebellion (1786 - 87) against courts that had been enforcing seizures of property for debt. Delegates to the Annapolis Convention called a meeting of all the states to amend the Articles. Edit
What was Shays Rebellion?
(1786 - 87) Uprising in western Massachusetts. In a period of economic depression and land seizures for debt collection, several hundred farmers led by Daniel Shays (1747? - 1825), who had served as a captain in the Revolutionary army, marched on the state supreme court in Springfield, preventing it from carrying out foreclosures and debt collection. Shays then led about 1,200 men in an attack on the nearby federal arsenal, but they were repulsed by troops under Benjamin Lincoln. As a result of the uprising, the state enacted laws easing the economic condition of debtors. Edit
Explain the major compromises of the Constitutional Convention.
The three-fifths compromise had nothing to do with the relative worth of slaves vs. free men, but instead had to do with how each portion of the country would be represented. The South wanted slaves to count as a full body when it came to determining how many Representatives each state got, because they knew it would favor them. The North wanted not to count slaves at all, because they knew it would favor them. To balance out the representation between the two portions of the country, slaves were counted as three-fifths, which was overriden by the Fourteenth Amendment in 1867.The Great Compromise was between the small states, like Delaware, and the large ones at the time like Virginia, as to how each state would be represented in the new Congress. The small states knew they would be outvoted in a Congress based completely on population, so they would not sign off on a Constitution that didn't treat all of the former colonies and any future states equally. Thus were born the House, where states were represented based on population, and the Senate, where states were represented equally. This is also known as the Connecticut Compromise, since the "authors" of the compromise were Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth, both in the Nutmegger delegation to the Constitutional Convention of 1787. Edit
Explain the concept of Popular Sovereignty.
Political doctrine that allowed the settlers of U.S. federal territories to decide whether to enter the Union as free or slave states. It was applied by Sen. Stephen A. Douglas as a means to reach a compromise through passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Critics of the doctrine called it "squatter sovereignty." The resulting violence between pro- and antislavery factions (see Bleeding Kansas) showed its failure as a workable compromise. Edit
What was Hamilton's plan for handling the National Debt?
1 - The government would buy up all bonds issued by the states and the federal government by 1789. 2. - The government would issue new bonds to repay old debts.3. - As the economy improved, the government would pay off the new bonds. Edit
The Jay Treaty with Great Britain ignited political fireworks in Congress. President George Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to London to negotiate a treaty that would settle American disputes with Great Britain and avoid another war between the two nations. Britain opened some of its ports in the British West Indies to U.S. trade and agreed to remove British troops from the American Northwest Territory. But the treaty did nothing to stop British searches of American ships or to settle other American grievances. Jay's controversial treaty brought into the open the growing political rift between Federalists and Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans in Congress. Edit
What were the main differences between the Federalists and the Democratic Republicans?
Federalists- Believed in a strong central government, ruled by a small class of elite wealthy. They distrusted the common man's ability to rule. The Democratic Republicans believed in State's Rights and wanted the common people to rule. Edit
What was the XYZ Affair?
(1797 - 98) Diplomatic incident between the U.S. and France. Pres. John Adams sent special envoys Elbridge Gerry and John Marshall to France to help Charles C. Pinckney negotiate an agreement to protect U.S. shipping from French privateers. Before the three could meet with Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand, they were approached by three of his agents — called X, Y, and Z in diplomatic correspondence to Adams — who suggested a bribe of $250,000 to Talleyrand and a loan of $10 million to France as preconditions for negotiations. Adams rejected the French demands and reported the mission had failed. When he was forced to reveal the correspondence, public outrage was followed by calls for war with France. The Alien and Sedition Acts were passed to restrict potential French sympathizers. The Convention of 1800 ended a period of undeclared naval warfare between the U.S. and France. Edit
What were the Alien and Sedition Acts?
Four laws passed by the U.S. Congress in 1798, in anticipation of war with France. The acts, precipitated by the XYZ Affair, restricted aliens and curtailed press criticism of the government. Aimed at French and Irish immigrants (who were mostly pro-France), they increased the waiting period for naturalization and authorized expulsion of aliens considered dangerous. The Alien and Sedition Acts were opposed by Thomas Jefferson and others and helped propel Jefferson to the presidency. They were repealed or had expired by 1802. Edit
What were the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions?
(1788 - 89) Measures passed by the legislatures of Virginia and Kentucky as a protest against the Alien and Sedition Acts. Drafted by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson (though their role went unknown for 25 years), the resolutions protested limitations on civil liberties and declared the right of states to decide on the constitutionality of federal legislation. Though their authors applied the resolutions to the specific issues of the day, Southern states later used the measures to support the theories of nullification and secession. Edit
What happened in the Election of 1800? What amendment was passed to prevent this ever happening again?
Prior to the 12th, whomever received the most electoral votes was president and whomever received the next largest number was vice-president. In 1796, the president and vice-president elect were from different parties, causing some difficulties in governing. In the election of 1800, the candidates for president and vice-president received the exact same number of votes and caused a run-off election in the House of Representatives. The 12th allowed candidates to run as a president and vice-president "team" specifying which office each candidate sought and was electable to. Edit
Explain how the case Marbury v. Madison helped to develop the concept of judicial review.
(1803) First decision of the Supreme Court of the United States to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional, thus establishing the doctrine of judicial review. In 1801 newly elected Pres. Thomas Jefferson ordered Secretary of State James Madison to withhold from William Marbury the commission of his appointment by former Pres. John Adams as justice of the peace in the District of Columbia. Marbury then requested that the Supreme Court compel Madison to deliver his commission. In denying his request, the court held that it lacked jurisdiction because the section of the Judiciary Act passed by Congress in 1789 that authorized the Court to issue such a writ was unconstitutional and thus invalid. Chief Justice John Marshall, writing for the Court, declared that the Constitution must always take precedence in any conflict between it and a law passed by Congress. Edit
Legislation by the U.S. Congress in December 1807 that closed U.S. ports to all exports and restricted imports from Britain. The act was Pres. Thomas Jefferson's response to British and French interference with neutral U.S. merchant ships during the Napoleonic Wars. The embargo had little effect in Europe, but it imposed an unpopular restriction on New England merchants and exporters (see Hartford Convention). Legislation passed in 1809 lifted the embargo, but continued British interference with U.S. shipping led to the War of 1812. Edit
What were the results of the War of 1812?
The war resulted in the destruction of the Indian tribes and their influence; Britain no longer controlled America and no longer had plans to single-handedly relieve the tensions between Americans and Indians (remember the Proclamation of 1763?); and Britain stopped the practice of impressment (taking sailors from other ships onto their ships) on American sailors. Edit
What was the Monroe Doctrine and why was it issued?
Originally promulgated by United States President James Monroe in 1823 as a warning to European powers that any expansionist activity by them anywhere in the Americas would be construed as a threat to the United States. Extended by Theodore Roosevelt and repeatedly used to justify US intervention in the affairs of Latin American countries. Edit
What was the impact of the National Road?
U.S. highway built in the early 19th cent. At the time of its construction, the National Road was the most ambitious road-building project ever undertaken in the United States. It finally extended from Cumberland, Md., to St. Louis and was the great highway of Western migration. Agitation for a road to the West began c.1800. Congress approved the route and appointed a committee to plan details in 1806. Contracts were given in 1811, but the War of 1812 intervened, and construction did not begin until 1815. The first section (called the Cumberland Road) was built of crushed stone. Opened in 1818, it ran from Cumberland to Wheeling, W.Va., following in part the Native American trail known as Nemacolin's Path. Largely through the efforts of Henry Clay it was continued (1825-33) westward through Ohio, using part of the road built by Ebenezer Zane. By this time the older part of the road was badly in need of repair. Control of the road was therefore turned over to the states through which it passed, where tolls for maintenance were collected. It was carried on to Vandalia, Ill., and finally to St. Louis. The old route became part of U.S. Highway 40. At points on the road copies of a statue called the Madonna of the Trail have been erected to honor the pioneer women who went West over the National Road. Edit
Erie Canal, a 363-mile artificial waterway connecting Buffalo to Albany, New York, was the biggest public works project in the pre-Civil War United States. Built by the State of New York between 1817 and 1825, and then enlarged between 1836 and 1862, the canal linked the Great Lakes to the Atlantic seaboard. Using locks, aqueducts, and man-made gorges, the canal over-came a combined ascent and descent of 680 feet. Celebrated for its technological achievements, the canal's practical influences were many: the waterway would hasten the displacement of New York's Iroquois Indians, quicken the westward migration of Euro-Americans, stimulate northeastern and midwestern industrialization, and ease commercial exchange in a growing transatlantic economy. Edit
Why was the Election of 1824 so controversial?
In the United States presidential election of 1824, John Quincy Adams was elected President on February 9, 1825 after the election was thrown into the House of Representatives. The previous few years had seen a one-party government in the United States, as the Federalist Party had dissolved, leaving only the Democratic-Republican Party. In this election, the Democratic-Republican Party splintered as four separate candidates sought the presidency. The faction led by Andrew Jackson would evolve into the Democratic Party, while the factions led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay would become the National Republican Party and later the Whig Party.This election is notable for being the only time since the passage of the Twelfth Amendment in which the presidential election was thrown into the House of Representatives, as no candidate received a majority of the electoral vote. This presidential election was also the only one in which the candidate receiving the most electoral votes did not become president (because a majority, not just a plurality, is required to win). It is also often said to be the first election in which the president did not win the popular vote, although the popular vote was not measured nationwide. At that time, several states did not conduct a popular vote, allowing their state legislature to choose their electors. Edit
The Bank War
Controversy in the 1830s over the existence of the Bank of the United States, at that time the only national banking institution. The first Bank of the United States, chartered in 1791 over the objections of Thomas Jefferson, ceased in 1811 when Jeffersonian (Democratic) Republicans refused to pass a new federal charter. In 1816 the second Bank of the United States was created, with a 20-year federal charter. In 1829 and again in 1830 Pres. Andrew Jackson made clear his constitutional objections to and personal antagonism toward the bank. He believed it concentrated too much economic power in the hands of a small moneyed elite beyond the public's control. Its president, Nicholas Biddle, with the support of Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, applied for a new charter in 1832, four years before the old charter was due to expire, thus ensuring that the bank would be an issue in the 1832 presidential election. Jackson vetoed the recharter bill and won the ensuing election, interpreting his victory as a mandate to destroy the bank. He forbade the deposit in the bank of government funds; Biddle retaliated by calling in loans, which precipitated a credit crisis. Denied renewal of its federal charter, the bank secured a Pennsylvania charter in 1836. Faulty investment decisions forced it to close in 1841. Edit
Tariff of 1828
Duties on imports set by the Tariff of 1828 were so high that its opponents denounced it as the Tariff of Abominations. Northern bankers, merchants, and manufacturers favored high duties, or taxes, on imports to protect American goods from foreign competition. Southern planters feared that high tax rates would increase the cost of nearly everything they bought. When Northerners in Congress worked to increase tariff rates, opponents adopted the tactic of adding many excessively high duties to make the whole tariff unattractive enough to defeat. But their strategy backfired, and the highly protective tariff was enacted. The South was so outraged over the Tariff of Abominations that VicePresident John C. Calhoun (Democrat-South Carolina) drafted a proposal that states could "nullify," or effectively cancel, offensive federal laws within their own jurisdiction. President Andrew Jackson and his supporters vigorously denied that states had any right of nullification. A constitutional crisis was avoided in 1832, when Congress adopted a new tariff that significantly lowered the rates set by the Tariff of Abominations. Edit
Tariff of 1832
The Tariff of 1832 was a protectionist tariff in the United States. It was passed as a reduced tariff to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by southerners and other groups hurt by high tariff rates. Southern opposition to this tariff and its predecessor, the Tariff of Abominations, caused the Nullification Crisis involving South Carolina. The tariff was later lowered down to 35 percent, a reduction of 10 percent, to pacify these objections. Edit
The Nullification Crisis
An unsuccessful but premonitory attempt (1832-33) by South Carolina's ruling planters, led by John C. Calhoun, to nullify federal legislation which violated state interests. Prompted by a receding cotton economy, high tariffs, the rise of abolitionism, and Nat Turner's uprising, the upper-class Nullifiers flamed fears of a humiliating conspiracy. Civil war loomed in early 1833 after Congress gave President Andrew Jackson authorization to forcefully subdue the Nullifiers, who pledged armed resistance. A compromise tariff agreement, however, was shortly reached, thus meeting South Carolina's request for economic relief while bolstering Jackson's status as a staunch unionist. Edit
How did Polk help Manifest Destiny?
Polk put into effect Manifest Destiny by the 54°-40° fight wherein Great Britain was only willing to go to the 49th parallel but through careful negotiations the US received their proposal of 54 degrees 40 latitude. In California and after the Gold Rush the US had also defeated Mexico and received California as part of the Guadulupe Hidalgo Treaty of 1848. This enabled to achieve the Manifest Destiny that we as Americans believed was our fate from God to have the land from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans. Edit
Why was Andrew Jackson sent to Florida?
Florida was owned by Spain. Jackson led raids into the territory. Many people wanted the Spanish out. They did not want a foreign power on the border of the US. Some people wanted to get Florida for the US just as the US had acquired other territory. It would remove a close enemy and provide territory for expansion. Edit
What were the terms of the Adam- Onis Treaty?
The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 settled a border dispute in North America between the United States and Spain. The treaty was the result of increasing tensions between the U.S. and Spain regarding territorial rights at a time of weakened Spanish power in the New World. In addition to granting Florida to the United States, the treaty settled a boundary dispute along the Sabine River in Texas and firmly established the boundary of U.S. territory and claims through the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific Ocean in exchange for the U.S. paying residents' claims against the Spanish government up to a total of $5,000,000 and relinquishing its own claims on parts of Texas west of the Sabine River and other Spanish areas. Edit
A historical overland route to the western United States extending from various cities on the Missouri River to the Oregon Country and later Oregon Territory. The trail was opened in 1842, and by 1845 more than 3,000 migrants had made the arduous journey. After the coming of the railroad, the trail fell into disuse and was finally abandoned in the 1870s. Edit
An agreement between the North and the South and passed by Congress in 1820 that allowed Missouri to be admitted as the 24th state in 1821. The North's attempt to force emancipation upon Missouri when it applied for admission as a slave state in 1819 rankled white southerners, and they threatened secession during the debates over the conditions under which Missouri should be granted statehood. The debates resulted in a compromise that involved the drawing of a line through the Louisiana Purchase territory prohibiting slavery north of the latitude 36°30′ and allowing it in the south. Edit
The Compromise of 1850
A series of measures adopted by the Congress on September 9, 1850, prior to the Civil War, to address slavery and territory issues and to avert secession by the South. Proposed largely by Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky, it included several measures to ensure a balance between free and slave states. It admitted California to the Union as a free state, and from the remaining land acquired in the Mexican War (1846-48), it established Utah and New Mexico as territories with an open status of slavery, a measure that overruled the Missouri Compromise. Edit
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
A bill creating the states of Kansas and Nebraska and allowing popular sovereignty in the territory. Passed on May 30, 1854, it was proposed by Illinois Democratic senator Stephen A. Douglas in an attempt to gain support from southern senators for his organization of the territory. It annulled the prohibition against slavery north of 36°-30′ that was passed in the Missouri Compromise. Edit
The process by which manufacturing industries develop from within a predominantly agrarian society. Characteristic features of industrialization include the application of scientific methods to solving problems, mechanization and a factory system, the division of labour, the growth of the money economy, and the increased mobility of the labour force—both geographically and socially. Edit
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Tom'S Cabin, an antislavery novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe and published in book form in 1852. In 1862, Abraham Lincoln apocryphally referred to Harriet Beecher Stowe as "the little woman who started this big war," underscoring the enormous influence of Uncle Tom's Cabin; Or, Life Among the Lowly to antebellum audiences. Stowe claimed to have been inspired by grief over her baby's death in 1849 and resistance to the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. Published serially in the National Era from 5 June 1851 to 1 April 1852 and in book form in March 1852, the novel sold 300,000 copies in the first year and more than a million by 1860. By 1900 it had spawned a theatrical tradition, inspired a market tie-in, and been translated into forty-two languages. Abolitionists thrilled to what Jane Tompkins has called the novel's "sentimental power," its emotional appeal, especially to middle-class women readers, to identify with black families separated by slavery (Sensational Designs, pp. 122-146). But the novel was viciously attacked by proslavery readers, even after Stowe defended the research on which she based the novel in A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin (1853). Edit
Frederick Douglass was a former slave who became one of the great American anti-slavery leaders of the 1800s. Douglass was born into slavery in Maryland but in 1838, at age 20, he escaped to freedom in New York. A few years later he went to work for abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, travelling and speaking on behalf of Garrison's paper The Liberator. Douglass published his memoir Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave in 1845. Eloquent, smart and determined, Douglass gained fame as a speaker, began his own anti-slavery publications and became a 'conductor' on the Underground Railroad. In later years he became a personal friend of Abraham Lincoln and helped persuade Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. He also was a strong supporter of women's rights. He is often described as the founder of the American civil rights movement. Edit
Harriet Tubman helped hundreds of American slaves escape along the secret route to freedom known as the Underground Railroad. Born a slave herself, she fled from Maryland to freedom in Philadelphia in 1849. For the next 10 years she made repeated secret trips back to Maryland, leading over 300 escaped slaves north to freedom in Canada. During the Civil War she also served the Union as a scout, spy and nurse. Her success at shepherding others to safety earned her the nickname "the Moses of her People" and made her a lasting symbol of the American anti-slavery movement. Edit
What started the Civil War?
The Civil War started in April 1861 when the Confederates attacked the Union troops stationed at Fort Sumter, a base about 1 mile outside of Charleston Harbor. After 33 hours of fighting, the Union troops surrendered and in retaliation, the North or Union troops declared war on the South or Confederate troops Edit
Robert E. Lee
Lee was the Confederacy's most famous general in the American Civil War. He attended West Point (graduating second in his class) and became an engineer in the United States Army, serving with distinction in the Mexican-American War. As the Civil War broke out he resigned his commission and joined the forces of the South. In 1862 he was made commander of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, and over the next three years became famous as he led the army to a series of victories over the larger and better-equipped Union forces. He was defeated at the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg and finally surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on 9 April 1865, effectively ending the war. Edit
Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson was one of the most honored generals of the American Civil War, the Confederate general who lost his arm and then his life from "friendly fire." A graduate of West Point (1846), Jackson distinguished himself as a young officer in the U.S. - Mexican War (1846-48), then spent ten years as a professor of natural philosophy and an instructor in artillery tactics at the Virginia Military Institute (1851-61). A disciplined and aggressive master of tactics, he fought at the first Battle of Bull Run and won the nickname "Stonewall" for his calm demeanor and stout defense of Henry Hill. Commander of the forces in the Shenandoah Valley, he succeeded against Union forces throughout the region in battle after battle. He was with Robert E. Lee at the Seven Days' Battles and fought at Manassas Junction, Second Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorville. After the battle at Chancellorville (May 2-4, 1863), Jackson was wounded by his own soldiers and his left arm was amputated. A week later he died, possibly of pneumonia. Edit
Soon after birth, Grant's name was changed to Ulysses Hiram Grant; when he arrived at West Point military academy in 1839, he found that he had been registered as Ulysses Simpson Grant, and he never bothered to change it. A sloppy cadet but a great horseman, Grant went on to serve in the Mexican War. A failure as a farmer and a businessman, Grant soared to fame during the Civil War as President Abraham Lincoln's choice as commander of the Union Armies (from 1864). After the war, Grant was easily elected to two terms as President, but his administration was tainted by corruption among his Cabinet members. He was succeeded by Rutherford B. Hayes. Edit
William Tecumseh Sherman
In 1861, at the start of the Civil War, he took a command and led his troops ably at First Bull Run despite the general Union rout. Pessimistic about the Union's chances to win the war and discouraged by the disorganization around him, Sherman began to speak freely of his doubts about the Union effort, and rumors spread questioning his mental stability. He did in fact became so depressed that he contemplated suicide. Association with Gen. Ulysses S. Grant bolstered his spirits, and he fought ably at Shiloh and Corinth (both 1862). He was briefly military governor of Memphis. He led an unsuccessful campaign in 1862 near Vicksburg that reopened the old charges against him. Sherman was a major participant in Grant's ultimate victory at Vicksburg and continued to command troops in the South. In 1864 he became commander of the Military Division of the Mississippi and began his drive for Atlanta, pushing relentlessly against the forces of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, later replaced by Gen. John B. Hood. Sherman took Atlanta in September 1864 and cut a swath to the sea, believing that limited and focused destruction intended to demoralize was more effective and merciful than the unending carnage of war. He favored a hard war, followed by a generous peace. When Grant became president, in 1869, Sherman succeeded him as commanding general. He retired in 1884. He was tremendously popular and was mentioned for the presidency numerous times, once responding with a phrase that became famous: "I will not accept if nominated and will not serve if elected." Edit
(July 1-3, 1863) a Civil War battle in and around Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, that was the bloodiest and most decisive of the war. Combined casualties, with slightly more on the Confederate side, were more than 50, 000. Numerous forces took part, principally under the command of Gen. George G. Meade on the Union side and Gen. Robert E. Lee for the South. It was a Union victory through slow attrition; Lee's army began retreating on July 4, 1863. The South made no further invasions and could never make up the losses in men and equipment it suffered here. Edit
Former town, southern central Virginia, U.S., site of the surrender of Robert E. Lee to Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865, effectively ending the American Civil War. It was virtually deserted after the removal of the county seat to the new town of Appomattox in 1892. It became a national historical monument in 1940 and a national historical park in 1954. Edit