The Critical Period
called the introduction of the Constitution ______ because the Constitution saved the nation from certain disaster under the Articles of Confederation
known as the "Financier of the Revolution" because of his role in financing the American side in the Revolutionary War. From 1781 to 1784, he served as Superintendent of Finance, managing the economy of the fledgling United States. At the same time he was Agent of Marine, a position he took without pay, and from which he controlled the Continental Navy. He was one of Pennsylvania's original pair of US senators, serving from 1789 to 1795, also organized the Newburgh Conspiracy with Alexander Hamilton to scare the nation into giving more federal powers
took place in 1787, said that sections of land were similar to colonies for a while, and under the control of the Federal Government. Once a territory was inhabited by 60,000 then congress would admit it as a state. The original thirteen colonies were charters. Slavery was prohibited in these Northwest Territories. This plan worked so well it became the model for other frontier areas.
An uprising that flared up in western Massachusetts. Impoverished backcountry farmers, many of them Revolutionary war veterans, were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies. They demanded cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of mortgage fore closures. Hundreds of angry agitators attempted to enforce these demands. Massachusetts authorities, supported by wealthy citizens, raised a small army under General Lincoln.
A precursor to the Constitutional Convention of 1787. A dozen commissioners form New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Virginia met to discuss reform of interstate commerce regulations, to design a U.S. currency standard, and to find a way to repay the federal government's debts to Revolutionary War veterans. Little was accomplished, except for the delegates to recommend that a further convention be held to discuss changes to the form of the federal government; the idea was endorsed by the Confederation Congress in February, 1878, which called for another convention to be held in May that year in Philadelphia.
Beginning on May 25, 1787, the convention recommended by the Annapolis Convention was held in Philadelphia. All of the states except Rhode Island sent delegates, and George Washington served as president of the convention. The convention lasted 16 weeks, and on September 17, 1787, produced the present Constitution of the United States, which was drafted largely by James Madison.
Nicknamed "the Father of the Constitution"; talented politician sent to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia on May 25, 1787; his notable contributions to the Constitution helped to convince the public to ratify it.
called for a two-house Congress with each state's representation based on state population
New Jersey Plan
called for a one-house Congress in which each state had equal representation
Connecticut or Great Compromise
larger states wanted to follow the Virginia Plan, which based each state's representation in Congress on state population. Smaller states wanted to follow the New Jersey Plan, which gave every state the same number of representatives. The convention compromised by creating the House and the Senate, and using both of the two separate plans as the method for electing members of each
was where a black slave was counted as three-fifths of a person when they were counting the population. The southern states wanted them counted as one whole person for more representatives in the House of Representatives. The northern states did not want them counted at all.
Federalists and Antifederalists
believed in advocating a strong federal government and fought for the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1787-1788, enemies disagreed with the Constitution because they believed people's rights were being taken away without a Bill of Rights; also did not agree with annual elections and the non-existence of God in the government.
The Federalist Papers
This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay off the U.S.'s early debts through tariffs and the excise tax on whiskey.
was the First Chief Justice of the United States, and also an American statesman and jurist. Elected to the Continental Congress, he also helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris w/ Great Britain, ending the American Revolution. Serving as governor of New York State from 1795 to 1801, he was a advocate of a strong national government. Appointed by Washington, henegotiated a settlement when was w/ Britain threatened due to controversies over the Treaty of Paris: it became known as ___'s Treaty.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Created the federal court system, allowed the president to create federal courts and to appoint judges.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee basic individual rights.
A body of executive department heads that serve as the chief advisors to the President. Formed during the first years of Washington's Presidency, the original members of the cabinet included the Sec. of State, of the Tres. and of War. The cabinet is extremely important to the presidency, because these people influence the most powerful man in the nation.
Report on the Public Credit
The report analyzed the financial standing of the United States of America and made recommendations for the retirement of the national debt. Commissioned by the House of Representatives on September 21, 1789 and presented January 9, 1790, this 140,000-word document was the first proposed federal assumption of debt owed by the states.
Part of Hamilton's economic theory. Stated that the federal government would assume all the states' debts for the American Revolution. This angered states such as Virginia who had already paid off their debts.
Part of Hamilton's Plan, it would save the government's surplus money until it was needed, managed government funds
Strict and Loose Interpretation
allows the government to do anything which the Constitution does not specifically forbid it from doing, contrasts with forbiding the government from doing anything except what the Constitution specifically empowers it to do
"Necessary and Proper" clause
Section 8 of Article I contains a long list of powers specifically granted to Congress which is sometimes referred to as the "elastic" clause because it can be "stretched" to include almost any other power that Congress might try to assert.
Report on Manufacturers
Presented to Congress in 1791, by Alexander Hamilton, the report suggested that protective tariffs on imports from foreign lands would lead Americans to produce more in their homelands, thus building national wealth and attracting foreigners.
a tax on imports/exports generally associated with protectionism, or controlling who a country trades with
began in 1789 with some nonviolent restrictions on the king, but became more hostile in 1792 when France declared war on Austria. Seeking help from America, the French pointed to the Franco-American alliance of 1778. Not wanting to get involved for fear of damage to the trade business, Washington gave the Neutrality Proclamation, which made America neutral. This led to arguments between Americans and French. After fighting with the French over such things as the Jay Treaty, the Americans came to peace with France in 1800.