Sociology- exam 2

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status set

a collection of social statuses that an individual occupies at a given time

status inconsistency

the conflict or tension that arises from occupying social positions that are ranked differently

role performance

the actual behavior of a person who occupies a status

role set

the different roles attached to a single status

role conflict

the frustrations and uncertainties a person experiences when confronted with the requirements of two or more statuses

role strain

the stress arising from incompatible demands among roles within a single status

For interactionists, what is the most significant feature of all human communication?

is that people take eachother and the context into account

enthomethodology

the study of how people construct and learn to share definitions of reality that make everyday interactions possible

What are the two ways in which people make sense of their everyday lives?

1. observing conversations, discover general rules that we all use to interact meaningfully.
2. people can understand interaction rules by breaking them.

impression management

a process of suppressing unfavorable traits and stressing favorable ones

What is the fundamental premise of social exchange theory?

social interaction between 2 people is based on each person's trying to maximize rewards and minimize punishments

emotional labor

the management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display

Is talk more often an end in itself for men or women?

women

Are men or women more likely to do conversational maintenance work?

women

In addition to speaking more frequently and for longer periods of time, men also show conversational dominance by what?

1. interrupt others
2. reinterpret the speakers meaning
3. reroute the conversation

How do male students view female professors touching them on the arm while talking to them?

the students view them as nurturing and and friendly

Why do people in Middle Eastern countries not offer anything to one another with their left hand?

because its the hand used to clean oneself after using the toilet

How does the rate of casual touch in the US compare with the rest of the world?

considered to be touch deprived

What distances are associated with private, social, and public space?

private: 1.5-2 feet
social: 4 feet
public: 12 or more feet

What example is provided in your text of a space intrusion that is not a physical encroachment?

loud cell phone conversations

Who are the most wired group in the US?

Asian- Americans, 90 percent are internet users

What are emoticons and why are they used?

like smiley faces or frowney ones to convey voice inflections & facial expressions

social group

two or more people who interact with one another and who share a common identity and a sense of a belonging or "we-ness"

What is the key ingredient in creating and maintaining groups?

interaction, especially face to face interaction

primary group

a relatively small group of people who engage in intimate face-to-face interaction over an extended period of time

secondary group

a large, usually formal, impersonal, and temporary collection of people who pursue a specific goal or activity

While primary groups meet our _____ needs, secondary groups fulfill _____ needs.

expressive; instrumental

in-group

people who share a sense of identity and "we-ness" that typically excludes and devalues outsiders

out-group

people who are viewed and treated negatively because they are seen as having values, beliefs, and other charactersitics different from those of an in-group.

reference group

a collection of people who shape our behavior, values, and attitudes

In Asch's research, what percent of confederates ended up agreeing with the false judgments of the group?

37%

Even when we know something is clearly wrong, we may go along with the group to avoid what?

to avoid ricule or exclusion

In Milgram's research, when the learners shrieked in pain, the majority of the teachers did what?

obeyed the study supervisor and administered the shocks when told to do so

Many social scientists used Milgram's findings to explain what recent event?

the Abu Ghraib prison in iraq where U.S soldiers abused and humilated Iraqi prisoners because they were following orders

groupthink

a tendency of in-group members to conform without critically testing, analyzing, and evaluating ideas, that results in a narrow view of an issue

A US Senate study (2004) on intelligence agencies provides an example of groupthink in the decision to do what?

the report concluded that US leaders decision to invade Iraq in 2003 was based on a group think dynamic that relied on unproven and inaccurate assumptions, inadequate or misleading sources, and a dismissal of conflicting information, which showed that Iraq had no weapons of mass destruction.

formal organization

a complex and structured secondary group that has been deliberately created to achieve specific goals in an efficient manner

bureaucracy

a formal organization that is designed to accomplish goals and tasks through efforts of a large number of people in the most efficient and ratonal way possible

What are the six key characteristics of the ideal type of bureaucracy as identified by Weber?

high-degree of division of labor and specialization, hiearchy of authority, explicit written rules and regulations, impersonality, qualifications-based employment, seperation of work and ownership

bureaucratic ritualism

a preoccupation with rules and regulations rather than the organization's objectives

What is Parkinson's law?

Parkinson's law is the idea that work expands to fill the time available for its completion. (Parkinson 1962)

What are the four components of McDonaldization?

Efficiency, Calculability, Predictability, and Control.

Women make up what percent of Fortune 500 CEOs and board directors at Fortune 500 companies?

less than 2 percent CEOs
15 percent board directors

glass ceiling

a collection of attitudinal or organizational biases in the workplace that prevent women from advancing to leadership positions.

social institution

an organized and established social system that meets on or more of a society's basic needs.

According to functionalists, what are five major social institutions wordwide?

Family, Economy, Political institutions, Education, and Religion.

What is Stigma?

a negative label that devalues a person and changes her or his self-concept and social identity.

Only during the 1980s and 1990s did the U.S. laws define what as crime?

date rape, marital rape, stalking, and child abuse.

What is crime?

a violation of societal norms and rules for which punishment is specified by public law.

What are criminologists?

researchers who use scientific methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior.

What is the best known and most widely cited source of official crime statistics?

the FBI's Uniform Crime Report (UCR) which includes crimes reported to the police and arrests made each year.

Approximately what percent of all crimes committed in the US go unreported?

60 percent

What is a victim survey?

a method of gathering data that involves interviewing people about their experiences as crime victims.

What does cleared by arrest mean?

someone has been arrested and turned over to the courts for prosecution.

What different questions do functionalists and conflict theorists ask?

functionalists ask, "Why do some people commit crimes and other do not?"
conflict theorists ask, "Why are some acts defined as criminal whle others are not?"

What is white-collar crime?

illegal activities committed by high-status individuals in the course of their occupation.

What is occupational crime?

illegal activities committed in the workplace by individuals acting solely in their own personal interest.

What is corporate crime?

illegal acts commited by executives to benifit themselves and their companies.

Of the 193 countries in the world, how many have made rape a crime?

104

What is primary deviance?

the initial violation of a norm or law.

What is secondary deviance?

rule-breaking behavior that people adopt in response to the reactions of others.

What are two barriers that make if very difficult for ex-inmates to reenter society?

employers' refusing to hire people with criminal records and landlords' unwillingness to rent apartments to people who have been released from prison.

The US has less than _____ percent of the world's population, but almost a _____ of the planets' prisoners.

5%, quarter.

What country has the most inmates per capita?

United States

Does the evidence suggest that executions deter crime?

no.

_____ of released prisoners are back behind bars within 3 years.

more than half

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