The scientific study of population characteristics.
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanant human settlement.
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
The number of people per unit of area arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
CBR (Crude Birth Rate)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
CDR (Crude Death Rate)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
NIR (Natural Increase Rate)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
TFR (Total Fertility Rate)
The average number of children a women will have throughout her childbearing years.
IMR (Infant Mortality Rate)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economical, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years and infant can expect to live.
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
ZPG (Zero Population Growth)
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
An English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834)
Set of doctrines derived from Thomas Malthus's theory that limited resources keep populations in check and reduce economic growth. A current proponent of Neo-Malthusianism is the Club of Rome.
The way nation's reasouces good and services are distributed
Suitable for plowing/farming
Places where the most people are usually found.
Linear (Arithmetic) Growth
Expansion that increases by the same amount during each time interval.
Disease that occures over a wide geographic area abd affects a very high proportion of the population
Stationary Population Level
No population growth
Exponential (Geometric) growth
Rapid growth that increases exponentially
The Plan of Action which arose from the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development calls for stabilizing the population of the world at 7.8 billion by the year 2050
Total enumeration/count of a population
Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Expansive Population Policies
Government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth
Eugeuic Population Policies
Government policies designed to favor one racial sector over others.
Restrictive Population Policies
Government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase
Negative Population Growth
The actual decline in population due to less than replacement births or extensive diseases
Act in China that allows people to have only 1 child in the city and 2 children in the countryside.
An increase in population by almost 30 million people. This spurred a growth in suburbs and three to four children families.
The rapid growth of teh world's human population during the past century
The Exponential curve occurs when there is no limit to population size. Shows a sudden rapid growth.
The Logistic curve shows the effect of a limiting factor (carrying capacity of the environment). Shows growth but then evens out.
A measure of how much nutrition can be produced from land. An area with fertile soil and adequate temperatures and precipitation for plants to grow will have a higher nutritional density than that without.