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Chapter 7 Biology Test Neblett

Who discovered the cell?

Robert Hooke

What is the cell theory?

1. All living things are made of cells
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things
3. New cell are produced from existing cells

Are all cells the same size?

No

What do all cells have?

A cell membrane, and have DNA at some point in their life

Where is the DNA stored?

Nucleus

What is the Nucleus?

Large membrane -enclosed structure containing the cell's genetic information in the form of DNA

Is DNA always stored in the Nucleus?

No

What type of cell does NOT have a nucleus?

Prokaryotes

What type of cell DOES have a nucleus?

Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes do not contain what kind of cells?

Membrane Bound Cells

What is an example of Prokaryotes?

Bacteria

What is an example of Eukaryotes?

Anything BUT Bacteria

What is an organelle?

Highly specialized "little organs" within the cell

What are the two main parts of a Eukaryotic Cell?

Nucleus and Cytoplasm

What is the two main parts of the Cytoplasm?

Cytosol and Organelles

What does DNA do?

contains the instructions for building Protein

What is the Nuclear Envelope?

A protective layer composed of Nuclear Pores

What is the purpose of Nuclear Pores?

Allows molecules to come into and out of the nucleus.

What is Chromatin?

Is DNA bound to proteins

Where is Chromatin Located?

Nucleus

What is the Nucleolus?

The dense region where ribosomes are assembled

What is a Ribosome?

A small particle of RNA and protein.

What does a Ribosome do?

produces protein based on a code given from the DNA

Where are Ribosomes located?

Attached to the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum or free floating in the cytoplasm.

What are the two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum?

Rough and Smooth

What does the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum do?

Modifies and Prepared to be exported out of the cell

Why is the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum called rough?

Because it is lined with Ribosomes

What does the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum do?

Makes Membrane Lipids and Detoxifies the cell

What does the Golgi Apparatus do?

packages, modifies, and sorts proteins for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell

What is the path of Ribosomes?

1. Made in the DNA
2. Inserted in the Rough ER for modification
3. Moved to the Golgi Apparatus to be prepared for storage or movement

What does the Lysosome do?

Removes the junk in the cell.

What is a Vacuole?

Saclike structures that are used for storage of water, salt, protein and carbs

What are the two specialized types of a Vacuole?

Central and Contractile

What does the Contractile Vacuole do?

Pumps out water to maintain Homeostasis

What does the Central Vacuole do?

Helps give the cell structure

What does the Mitochondria do?

Converts the chemical energy of food into compounds that the cell can use.

What is the structure of Mitochondria?

2 membranes, an outer and inner

What does Mitochondria have of their own?

DNA

What is a Chloroplast?

Organelles that capture the sun's energy and convert it to sugars

What is the structure of Chloroplast?

2 membranes

What does Chloroplast have as well?

its own DNA

What is the Cytoskeleton?

Network of filament that help the cell maintain its shape and aid the cell in movement

What are the two types of filaments?

microtubules and microfilaments

What is a microtubule?

hollow structures made up of proteins called Tublins and form Centrioles

What does a Centriole do?

Helps organize cell division in only animal cells

What is a microfilament?

threadlike structures made of protein and Produce a flexible framework for the cell

What is the Cell Membrane do?

Provides protection and support for the cell, and Controls what comes into and leaves the cell

What is the Structure of the Cell Membrane?

Lipid Bilayer and is semipermeable

What is embedded in the Cell Membrane?

Protein Molecules

What is the Function of the Protein Molecules?

Some serve as pumps or channels to move
things/in out of the cell and Some have carbs attached to them, that acid in Communication between neighboring cells

What is the function of the Cell Wall?

Provides strong support and protection for the cell

What is the structure of the Cell Wall?

Made mainly of carbohydrates and proteins

What is the main component of the cell wall?

Carbohydrate Cellulose

What is Concentration?

Mass/Volume

Are particles moving or still?

They are moving, which causes them to spread out which leads to diffusion.

What is Diffusion?

Movement of particles from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration

What is Equilibrium?

State where there is an Equal concentration throughout

What is Osmosis?

the diffusion of water

What can pass through the Cell Membrane?

Small uncharged particles

What does it mean when it says the cell wall is semi-permeable?

some molecules can freely move across it and some cannot

What is a Hypertonic Solution?

Above Strength

What is a Hypotonic Solution?

below strength

What is an Isotonic Solution?

same strength

What are the 3 types of Passive transport?

1. Diffusion
2. Osmosis
3. Facilitated Diffusion

What is Facilitated Diffusion?

diffusion that requires the help of a protein channel

What is Active Transport?

Movement of materials across a cell membrane that DOES require energy from the cell.

What are 2 types of Active Transport?

1. Endocytosis
2. Exocytosis

What is Endocytosis?

the process of taking material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane

What is Extocytosis?

the process by which material is released from the cell

What is Phagocytosis?

The process of bringing in solids into the cell

What is Pincytosis?

The process of bringing in liquids into the cell

What is Cell Specialization

The process of change within cells so that they have a specific function in an organism

How do all cells start and go through?

They all start the same and go through Cell Specialization.

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