ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)
Term may be found to impact student learning. Students with term may have difficulty focusing, following directions, organizing, making transitions, completing tasks, and so on. The diagnosis is made by a medical professional, not by school personnel
ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
Term my be found to impact student learning. Students with term may have many of the same difficulties as students with term (difficulty focusing, organizing, etc.) but may also have difficulty with impulsivity, sitting still, and taking turns. The diagnosis is made by a medical professional, not by school personnel.
Auditory (or Aural) Learner
Term process information through listening. They learn through lectures, discussions, listening to tapes, repeating information, and reading aloud.
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Term may include term, Asperger syndrome, and other pervasive developmental delays (PDD). Students with these disorders have difficulty socializing and communicating.
Behavior Disorder (BD)
Term (also known as conduct disorder) is a type of disruptive behavior disorder in children and adolescents. Students with behavior disorder may violate rules, show aggression toward people or animals, destroy property, or practice deceitfulness.
Concrete Operational Thinkers
Children approximately ages 7-11 think in logical terms, not in abstract terms. Students in this age range require hands-on experiences to learn concepts and manipulate symbols logically.
Developmental delays are identities by a medical professional in a child before the age of 22. The student may have one or more of the following difficulties: self-care, expressive or receptive language, learning, mobility, self-direction, capacity for independent living, and economic self-sufficiency.
ELL or ESL or PLNE
Terms are used to describe students who are learning English as a second (or third or fourth) language. Teachers of bilingual and multicultural students can support English language acquisition and learning in several important ways, including building on students' culture, supporting students' proficiency in their native language, giving students time to learn English (two years for conversational English, seven years for academic English) and offering opportunities for students to work and talk in small groups.
Formal Operational Thinkers
Children approximately ages 11-15 develop hypothetical and abstract thinking. Students at this stage can use logical operations to work abstract problems. For example, students at this stage are better able to complete algorithms when working math problems as opposed to using math manipulatives to understand the problems.
Functional Mental Retardation (MR)
Term is a diagnosis determined by a medical professional for a child who exhibits difficulties with the following: age-specific activities (for example, playing), communication, daily living activities, and getting along with others.
Term learners process information through moving and doing. They learn through acting out scenes, putting on plays, moving to the beat, pacing out measurements on the sidewalk, and so on.
LD (Learning Disability)
Terms are determined by a multidisciplinary team or physician. Students with term are not learning to their potential in one or more areas, such as reading, writing, oral language, or mathematics. There are three main types of learning disabilities: reading, mathematics, and written.
Term learners process information through touching. They learn through active involvement with the physical world — hands-on experiences.
Term learners process information through seeing. They learn thorough visual displays, films, illustrated books, hand-outs, graphic organizers, bulletin boards, and so on.