Chapter 7: Cell Organelles

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cell wall

it covers the cell membrane and provides extra structure and support (plant)

cytoplasm

the fluid-filled region of the cell within the membrane where organelles are suspended within it (both)

cell membrane

a phospholipid layer that covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell's environment (both)

cytoskeleton

a web of protein fibers found in eukaryotic cells and helps the cell move, keep its shape, and organize its parts (both)

nucleus

in a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA; which provides instructions for making proteins, regulates cellular activities, and enables cells to reproduce; is the command center of all cellular activity, is surrounded by a nuclear envelope (the membrane around the nucleus), and contains the nucleolus (both)

ribosome

a cell organelle where protein synthesis occurs (both)

vesicle

a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell, separates the proteins sent outside the cell from the rest of the cytoplasm, maintains homeostasis by storing and releasing various substances as the cell needs them, and is used for transportation (both)

endoplasmic reticulum

(ER) A system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids. It is close to being attached to the nucleus. The smooth ER does not have ribosomes attached to it and makes lipids and breaks down toxinswhereas the rough ER does. (both)

Golgi apparatus/Golgi bodies/Golgi complex

a cell organelle that helps make and package materials (proteins) to be transported out of the cell (it is where proteins are modified, sorted, and packaged for distribution) (both)

lysosome

a vesicle that contains specific enzymes that break down large molecules, transports large molecules, and processes damaged organelles (it is part of digestion inside the cell) (both)

central vacuole

A fluid-filled vesicle found in the cytoplasm of plant cells or protists and stores water so that when it fills with water, it enables the plant to be upright, and when it is empty of water, a plant wilts. (A general vacuole assists with food digestion, stores water, ions, pigments, toxins, nutrients, and waste (both)) (plant)

chloroplast

an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs, which uses light energy to create sugar from CO2 and H2O resulting in ATP, a source of ATP in plant cells (plant)

mitochondria

in a eukaryotic cell, the cell organelle that is the power house of the cell, surrounded by two membranes, is the site of cellular respiration, and uses energy from organic compounds to make ATP (the more a cell needs energy, the more mitochondria is found within it) (both)

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