contains labels for countries and capital cities, as well as major physical features like plains, rivers,
the shape of the earth's surface is shown by contour lines; contour lines are imaginary lines that join points of equal elevation above sea level on the land's surface.
depicts the meteorological conditions over a specific geographic area at a specific time.
Mercator map projection
accurately shows shape and direction, but distorts distance and size of land masses.
a useful overall picture of the world; keeps correct size and shape of most continents and oceans,
true compass direction, usually circular, distorts scale, area and shape; usually used to show areas
a measurement, in degrees, of a location's distance east or west of the prime meridian. The prime
a measurement, in degrees, of a location's distance north or south of the equator. The equator is an
The International Dateline
an imaginary line that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole between Russia and
are great divisions of land on the globe; the large part of the surface of the earth that rises above sea
rows or chains of mountains. For example, the Himalayan mountain range, along India's northern
a large, flat area that rises above the surrounding land; at least one side has a steep slope.
an elongated depression in the earth's surface, usually between ranges of hills or mountains.
an extensive area of level and rolling, treeless country, often covered by rich, fertile soil.
a region which is covered by perennial ice and snow; a large glacier forming on an extensive area of
a level and rolling treeless plain in artic and sub-artic regions with black mucky soil with permanently
Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America. The largest is Asia.
Mediterranean, Sea of Japan, Arabian, Black, Red, East China, South China, Caribbean, Bering, Gulf of
Africa: Nile (world's longest), Congo (5th longest), Niger (largest delta in Africa), Zambezi (famous for the Victoria
Major Mountain ranges
Asia: Himalaya - largest mountain range on earth, Mt. Everest is its highest peak (29,035 feet), Karakoram and
name originally applied to the Semitic peoples of the Arabian Peninsula; now used also for populations
- with 56 countries, the second-largest continent (after Asia), located south of Europe and bordered to the
extreme racial segregation was practiced by the white minority who controlled the government.
he Caribbean Sea is in the Atlantic Ocean, bordered by the West Indies to the north and east, South
third largest continent, comprising Mexico, the United States, Canada and Central America:
Mexico's northern border is the United States, to the west, the Pacific Ocean and to the east, the Gulf of
the southern most part of the North American continent, lying between Mexico and South
Western European democratic governments: Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Belgium,
Taiwan and South Korea - both have developed prosperous and free societies.
Both these societies were anticommunist and had a parliament, however the government was run by one dominant
South Central Asia
- countries include: Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Sri Lanka, Iran, Bangladesh, Kyrgystan, Pakistan,
has become a modern Islamic republic and a major regional power, having nuclear bomb capabilities. It is
was an Islamic oligarchy, but had its first democratic elections in 2004, after the defeat of the Taliban
a geographical subdivision of Asia which includes the following nations: Burma, Cambodia,
the islands of the southern, western and central Pacific Ocean, including Melanesia, Micronesia and
because the Earth is closer to the Sun during parts of its elliptical orbit than at other times, and due to the
occurs in the Northern Hemisphere on June 21 or 22. One of the Earth's poles is tilted directly
in the Northern Hemisphere this occurs on September 22 or 23; in the Southern Hemisphere this
In the Northern Hemisphere it is on December 21 or 22; areas north of the Arctic Circle have 24
the Earth's tilt is sideways toward the Sun and the hours of daylight are the same in both
is a region's usual long-term weather patterns. Average temperatures, amounts and kinds of precipitation,
the short-term state of the atmosphere at any particular time and place. Weather involves temperature, air
water overflows its natural or artificial banks into normally dry land. Floods are commonly caused by
periods of time when less rain than normal falls in an area. During droughts, crops fail and dried out soil
have a significant effect on plant, animal and human life. Snow increases the reflection of solar
tremors of the Earth's surface, sometimes violent and devastating, which result from shock waves
heory which explains the distribution of continents, earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountains. Plates
Earthquakes create mountain ranges:
Mountain ranges are thought to form from tectonic plates colliding together and pushing the surface of the Earth
The Grand Canyon is a 5,000 foot deep gorge which was carved into the Earth's surface by the Colorado River, in
Located in California, Yosemite is famous for dramatic rock formations and water falls. Yosemite valley was created
occur in rural areas; the amount of land between each of the dwellings depends on the
tend to follow roads and river valleys which allows easy communication, and flat lands which
generally found located around ports, harbors and roads; they have a center, or "nucleus."
North Atlantic Treaty Organization - an international organization, formed in 1949, which includes the
Organization of African Unity
The Organization of African Unity was established in 1963. Originally 32
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries - an organization of about a dozen nations that sell oil to
A nation in which the average income is much lower than in industrialized/developed nations,
Canada - largest trading partner with the United States. 20% of all U.S. international trade.
Construction of houses, roads, and cities
In the U.S., about a million acres of farmland (an area half the size of
human-initiated fires for land clearing and land use can quickly develop into large-scale and
Water and air pollution:
Most water pollution is the result of human activities; wastes produced by households,
Radioactive materials' effects on the environment:
In 1986, an explosion in a nuclear power station in Chernobyl, Ukraine, was the worst nuclear accident ever. Large
the transformation of arable, or habitable, land into desert, as by a change in climate, or by
the term attached to the belief that the Earth's temperature is gradually increasing due to the
the ozone "hole" is a periodic depletion of the ozone layer that occurs over Antarctica in the
any resource, such as wood, wind, water or solar energy, that can or will be replenished
natural resources that are not replaced in a useful time frame. As nonrenewable resources
Conflicts in the Middle East:
The Middle East is the region in western Asia and northeast Africa that
Korea in the 1940's and 1950's and Vietnam in the 1960's and 1970's:
Looking at a map of North Korea and North Vietnam, you will notice that they are both right next to communist
Native Americans removed from their land to fulfill the Manifest Destiny:
In the 1800's, the newly built railroad trains brought merchants, miners, ranchers, and farmers from the settled East
The beginning of history can be traced back before the first human beings appeared about 3 billion years ago.
the name given to the Old Stone Age and the time period where most of human pre-history took place.
In Europe, another human species lived and adapted to life in the cold climates of the last Ice Age.
Invention of writing:
Western writing first developed here in 3500 B.C. Writing was done with sticks on clay
Code of Hammurabi
a king in ancient Mesopotamia who was known for putting 282 laws of his country into a
3000 B.C. First city-states - each city acted as a state with its own special gods or goddesses, its own
Sumerians built temples to worship the gods. Slaves taken captive in war were
- brick makers fired bricks in kilns to produce building materials for structures that were
Alexander the Great:
King of Macedonia,Alexander the Great joined to help defeat the Persians that Athens and Sparta had been fighting together 490 - 479.
rich and cultured, astronomers, mathematics, thinkers, writers, artists, society with slaves.
Best Army, economy based on slave workers, no democracy, sports encouraged for both boys and girls, boys
Rome rose to power thanks to its fertile farmland, its army (best in Europe) and its key position in the
The Roman Empire:
At its peak, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the west to Mesopotamia in the east. At its largest,
The decline and fall of the Roman empire
In the end, not even the Roman army could control such a huge empire. The
means peace and submission. There is one God, Allah, and Mohammad is his prophet. People called
The first monotheistic (one-God) religion. Jews believe that Moses' prophecies are true and the Messiah
- Christians believe that there is one God and Jesus Christ was his son, a prophet. Jesus is called Christ
ancient India's first great religion. No unified systems of beliefs or ideas. There's only one supreme God
A religion, founded by Buddha, that believes that the answer to human suffering lay not in worshipping
500 BC, a scholar named Confucius taught a system of "right behavior" which has influenced
a religion native to China, its adherents attempt to live according to the Tao - the "way" which
In theory, the emperor owned all the land and gave portions of the land to his leading nobles in
the answer to human suffering lay not in worshipping gods, but in right thinking and selfdenial.
Africa south of the Sarah desert, the countries not part of North Africa. Also known as Black
Central America, biggest cities were in modern day Guatemala (south of Mexico), most powerful from
North America / Mexico. 1300 - 1520 They had two main cities, Tenochtitlan (Mexico city today) and Tlatelco. These two cities had a population of half
1300's - 1536 They built a huge empire in the Andes which grew to include 3,000 miles from north to
was the way of life that governed Medieval Europe for hundreds of years during the 9th century.
The Black Death:
1331 - 1430 A popular name for the bubonic plague and one of the greatest medical disasters in
allowed European sailors to carry muskets, pistols, and small artillery pieces that they could
Columbus proposed to the Spanish government, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, to
Renaissance means "rebirth" or "reawakening",in the early 1300's, a cultural and intellectual revival began in parts of southern Europe, especially
Leonardo da Vinci
1452 - 1446, was a great Renaissance painter (the Mona Lisa) and an engineer (tried to make
472 - 1564, was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, and poet who influenced
a Scottish mechanic, developed the first cost-effective steam engine that changed the textile and coal mining
1789 - 1799The French helped America with the American Revolution causing them to go bankrupt.
American political philosopher, expressed negative opinions about African Americans and
an 18 century French philosopher who believed that in the state of nature, people are good but that they
a 17 century philosopher who argued that the government should depend on the consent of the
During the end of the 1700's and first half of the 1800's, mass production of goods, goods made using machine
an American inventor, pioneered interchangeable parts and invented the cotton gin to clean raw
when a country extends its power and dominion, especially by direct territorial acquisition or by
First World War
1914-1918 In the late 19 century, rivalry between different nations in Europe increased. They competed with each other for
During World War I, Russia was allied with France and Britain. The Russian armies suffered defeats on the
1810 to 1823.They fought for independence from Spain and for social justice; they wanted equal rights for Indians, mestizos,
Worldwide economic depression in the 1930's
The end of WWI in 1918 left devastation across large areas of Europe and many countries were in economic chaosWhen the prices fell in October of 1929, people rushed to sell their stocks, but prices fell even further.
Rise of communism
In 1920 there were 23 governments in Europe that could be considered democratic and by 1939, right before WWII,
In the fall of 1917, Lenin and Trotsky overthrew the provisional governmentFrom 1921 until his death in 1924, Lenin tried to modernize the Soviet Union along Marxist lines..
a system of government that flourished in GerBoth communism and fascism are forms of Totalitarianism; fascism doesn't demand state ownership of many and Italy, from the 1920's to the end of WWII.
described his rule as Totalitarian, a 20 century form of dictatorship in which the regime, using modern
Nazism in Germany
The Nazi regime began to act against the Jews because they considered them the "undesirables".
Rise of Fascism in Japan
During the 1930's, increased imperial aggression by Europe and America and the effects of the Great Depression
World War II: 1939 - 1945
Truly a global war which was waged over 2/3 of the entire planet; every continent except Antarctica and South
12 million victims, 6 million Jewish and 6 million non-Jewish, were killed in the German campaign of racial
The Cold War
was a political war between USSR and its communist allies against the United States and other
After WWII, U.S., France and Britain formed the German Federal Republic (Western Germany) and the USSR
Collapse of the Soviet Union
Communism collapsed in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe during 1989 - 1991; the Cold War also ended during
called for economic reform and a greater emphasis on human rights throughout Eastern Europe.
A global economy:
The international spread of Capitalism in recent decades across national boundaries and with minimal restrictions by
the positive effects of atomic power are the possibility of obtaining energy from fusion/fission
the positive effects are that it shortened WWII and saved Allies lives. The negative side is that it
in order to send radio signals around the Earth, scientists developed communications satellites.
Computers, Internet and e-commerce
In the last 30 years, computers have revolutionized almost every aspect of modern-day life..
maintaining business relationships and selling info, service, and commodities by means of computer
the latest advances in technology use light instead of waves to transmit information. Glass fiber optic
the race to space started during the cold war when USSR and the US competed with each other to put
scientists have recently "cracked the genetic code" of the human genome, after an
American Natives, Iroquois, unite in Northeast. Plains Indians use horses to follow buffalo herds.
Benjamin Franklin tries to unite the colonies under the Albany Plan to provide an inter-colonial government
Civil war ends when General Lee surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse, Pres. Lincoln assassinated
Anasazi (cliff dwellers)
"ancient ones" is the name given to the region where the 4 corners of Utah, Colorado,
a widely dispersed group of peoples in the Arctic region of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and
Northwest Indians (Kwakiutl)
occupied Vancouver Island, the adjacent mainland and the islands of British
The Great Plains is vast, treeless grassland in the middle of our nation from the Mississippi River
Sometime in the 1500's, 5 different Northeastern Indian tribes united, later 1 more(living in the
Captain John Smith
Organized Jamestown and imposed a harsh law "He who will not work shall not eat".
Indians showed the Pilgrims how to plant corn, pumpkins, beans, how to hunt and fish. To give thanks for the
wanted to live in peace with the Indians, so rather than stealing their land, he offered to pay a fair
New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, centered on farming( large exports of grain).
did everything themselves: cleared field, planted, farmed the field, build house, furniture, fences.
many chores, took care of children, spun thread or yarn, sewed cloth into clothes, prepared and
neighbors, blacksmiths, carpenters, chimney sweeps, rope-makers, wheel-makers, barrel-makers,
The American Revolution 1775-1783
There were several causes for the American Revolution: a growing sense of patriotism and national identity,
The Seven Years War
1756 - 1763 it is also called the French and Indian War which is confusing because the
Sugar Act of 1764
The seven years war ran a huge debt for England who felt the colonists should help pay so the English parliament
an act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Boston Massacre-March 5, 1770
conflict between colonists and British soldiers in which four colonists were killed
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
The Battle of Concord
is referred to as "the shot heard round the world" because colonial farmers just repelled the army of
wrote Common Sense where he argued for republicanism over a monarchy and colonial independence
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
quote from the Declaration of Independence:
"We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with
Weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation
There were no separation of powers; the central government was too weak.
he felt that the colonists should help pay the debt from the seven year war and began passing taxation
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
The Constitution and the addition of The Bill of Rights:
"We the people of the U.S., in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility,
term-6 years, number of members-100, requirements- must be 30 and a U.S. citizen for 4 years, leaders- Vice President, duties- represent each state.
House of Representatives
must be 25, 7 years of citizenship, 2 year term, 435 members, speaker of the house, no limit on terms
the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
set up a federal system, in which political authority was divided between the national government and the state governments. Provided a seperation of power between the legislative, judicial, and executive branches of government
The legislative branch of government, as described in Article I of the US Constitution, consisting of the House of Representatives and Senate. Primarily responsible for making laws.
organization that tries to influence gov. policy by promoting its ideas and backing candidates for office
a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Brown vs. Board of Education
Stated in 1954 that it was unconstitutional to maintain separate black and white schools (5 words),
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Martin Luther King
United States charismatic civil rights leader and Baptist minister who campaigned against the segregation of Blacks (1929-1968)
territorial acquisitions as settlers began moving westward beyond the Appalachian Mountains
Lewis and Clark expedition
an expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Removal act of 1830
an act to provide for an exchange of lands with lands further west; the Indians were forced to
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
The Dred Scott decision
Supreme Court decision in 1857 that ruled that slaves were property, not people, and Congress did not have the right to outlaw slavery in any territory.
United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
Harriet Beecher Stowe
United States writer of a novel about slavery that advanced the abolitionists' cause (1811-1896)
abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
Plessy v. Ferguson:
court upheld segregation it ruled seperate but equal facilities did not violate the fourteenth ammendment.
United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
an American financier, banker, philanthropist, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time.
a conviction that various religious, ethnic, racial, and political groups should be allowed to thrive in a
a term expressing the view that immigrants to the United States have been fused or melted into a
the formation of labor unions, during the 1880's, for the workers to receive better treatment by
was an American social activist and leading figure of the early woman's movement. is often credited with initiating the first organized woman's rights and woman's suffrage movements in the United States.
The Cuban missile Crisis:
When Kruchev tried to build nuclear bases in Cuba, the two superpowers were brought to the brink of war. This base was just 90 miles away from Florida and was a threat to the US. In 1962, President Kennedy declared a naval blockade of Cuba. In the end, Kruchev agreed to remove the missiles from Cuba.
became a synonym for public charges of disloyalty without sufficient regard for evidence.
In 1954, McCarthy accused the army of harboring Communists and they fought back in the Army-McCarthy hearings
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
Civil Rights movement
movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
An ideology that is dominated by concern for the environment but also promotes grassroots democracy, social justice, equal opportunity, nonviolence, respect for diversity, and feminism.
a system of obligations that bound lords and their subjects in Europe during much of the Middle Ages.
An economic and social system envisioned by the 19th century German scholar, Karl MarxIn theory, all means of production are owned in common, rather than by individuals..
rule by the people, helps prevent rule by cruels aristocrats, modern democracies don't fight wars with each other.
a system of government which power is divided between a national government (federal) and regional government.
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
the branch of the United States government that has the power of legislating, The legislative branch creates the laws. There are two houses in it. One is the Senators. There are two senators per state. There is also a House of represenitives. The amount of people per state depends on how big the population is.
The judicial branch decides what the laws mean. For example: The law, don't litter implies on trash being thrown outside. But it does not consider throwing away a bitten piece of food.
The Executive Branch carries out the laws. A word for this would be "execute". The only member in this group is the president of the united states of america.
a group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress
a smaller group of people who differ racially or politically or religiously, or economically from a larger
generalized beliefs about what members of an identifiable group are like that operate as schemas when perceiving members of those groups
a principle or a way of behaving that is of a very high standard. Idealism is the belief that your ideals can be achieved, often when this doesn't seem likely to others.
to show favor or disfavor unjustly often based on prejudice and/or bias for or against a person or group of persons.
a theory that psychology is essentially a study of external human behavior rather than internal consciousness and desires.
an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit