-concluded revolutionary war with treaty of Paris in 1783
-kept states together with common national citizenship
-settled question of western land claims
-9 states needed to ratify a bill before it became a law
-all states needed to accept an amendment
-little or no enforcement of laws
-no foreign policy
-states printed own currency
-federal gov. couldn't tax
-no federal army
-no judicial system
-no national compulsive power over states
After the Treaty of Paris, England still held posts along the Canadian border that she refused to leave. The British had hoped to keep control of the fur trade and force the U.S. to pay British creditors. The posts held included Detroit and Niagara.
Western Land Cession 1781
Maryland demanded that the U.S. government have control over all western lands. Maryland postponed her ratification of the Articles until all states (especially Virginia) complied because she feared large stateswould become too powerful. The land given to the U.S. government was for public domain (complete ownership of land by the public).
Land Ordinance 1785
This law stated that the U.S. government would sell, at auction, western lands for a minimum $1 an acre. The profit would be used to pay off the national debt. The public domain was surveyed into township systems that were six square miles. Each township was divided into 36 one-square-mile area(sections). One section equalled 640 acres.
Alexandria conference 1785
Delegaes of Virginia and Maryland met to consider means of improving the navigability of the Potomac River. The commissioners asked all states to meet at Annapolis where problems of interstate commerce could be discussed.
Shays' rebellion 1786
Captain Daniel Shays led back country farmers in a rebellion because many people were losing their farms through mortgage, foreclosures, and tax delinquencies. Farmers demanded cheaper paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of mortgage foreclosures. the rebellion ended when troops broke up Shays' mob in Boston
Annapolis Conference 1786
In this convention, states near the Chesapeake Bay area talked about the lowering of taxes and tariffs to increase trade between states. Alexander Hamilton told the states to meet one year later in Philadelphia so they could overhaul the Articles of Confederation.
Northwest Ordinance 1787
This law provided that the area north of Ohio be divided into three to five territories, and allowed a territory to have a governor,secretary, three judges, and a legislature if inhabited by 5,000 white males. The territory could apply to the U.S. government for statehood if it had 60,000 white males.
He was discontented with the Northern states' willingness to strangle the western economy by closing the Mississippi. He conspired with Spain to separate Kentucky from the Union in return for money. His conspiracy collapsed in 1788 when Spain reopened the Mississippi.
Philadelphia Convention 1787
Delegates from all states but Georgia met in Philadelphia to discuss the Articles of Confederation. This convention Resulted in a new constitution. All 55 delegates represented the propertied upper class and most were personally interested in creating a strong central government
He was unanimously elected chairman of the [Philadelphia] convention. He was respected as "The sword of the Revolution," and served to quiet overheated tempers.
He was a conservative delegate from New York who attended the Philadelphia Convention. He was only 32 years old and advocated a very powerful central government
He was a delegate from Virginia and was considered the "Father of the Constitution." He wrote out the Virginia Plan and kept a detailed diary during the convention.
This plan, written by James Madison and introduced by Edmund Randolph, called for the establishment of membership proportional to population, voting in the legislature by individuals, and a president and courts chosen by the legislature.
New Jersey Plan
this plan was William Paterson's counterproposal to the Virginia Plan. It enlarged the powers of Congress to include the right to levy taxes, and regulate commerce. It defined congressional laws and treaties ans the "supreme law of the land," and it had separate executive and judicial branches
this plan was a compromise between the Virginia and the New Jersey Plans. It formed a bicameral legislature that consisted of the House of Representatives (representation based on state population) and the Senate (which had two representatives from each state). It also made money bills start from the House.
He thought up the idea of the Constitution's Executive Branch and the idea of the Electoral College electing the President.
This college is made up of people chosen by state legislators(each state receives the same number of electors as it has total senators and representatives). Electors choose the two best people for president
North & South Compromise
This compromise pacified the North and South. It stated that the South could count 5 slaves for 3 whites in population, but, in return, the South would have to pay 3/5 more taxes. It also made the slave trade illegal after 1808
Bill of rights, George Mason
He was the "Father of the Bill of Rights." The bill of rights are the first ten amendments added to the constitution and enumerated the rights of men. He refused to sign the Constitution until these rights were added to the Constitution.
Usually Wealthy, educated, property owning men, who believed in a strong, centralized federal government, and supported the new Constituiton. They included planters and merchants and were concentrated along the seaboard where they could use their political power to persuade congressmen to their position. These people supported the ratification of the New constitution
Implied powers (Elastic Clause)
This was an ambiguous power of the Federal Government that stated "Congress can do what's proper and necessary."
Loose and Strict construction:
Loose constructionists (such as A. Hamilton) believed Congress could use the Elastic Clause to establish government programs. Hamilton used the loose construction argument effectively in establishing a national bank. The strict constructionists (Thomas Jefferson) believed that the Elastic clause could not be used to create the U.S. Bank and were against giving Congress any more power.
The Federalist papers
This book was made up of 85 essays that were written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. They were passed out as essays to support the ratification of the Constitution.
George Washington (1790's)
He was a Federalist from Virginia who became the first President of the United States. He was the only president with a unanimous vote; therefore a second vote was necessary for the election of the Vice President. He appointed a cabinet of advisers early in his presidency.
He was a Federalist vice President under Washington and became the second President of the U.S. His opponent, Thomas Jefferson, became vice president. He was a qualified president, but failed miserably. He was the last federalist as President.
He was Secretary of state under Washington and Vice-President under John Adams. He was against the Federalists' policy of supporting only the aristocrats, and instead supported the common man. His supporters formed the Democratic-republican Party
Alexander Hamilton (1790's)
He was the financial genius from New York and was Secretary of the Treasury under Washington. He made a financial Plan that placed America on firm financial ground
Judiciary Act 1789
It created effective federal courts in a hierarchical order. There were city, county, and state courts, along with circuit courts, and the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court was the highest court in the U.S. The act defined each court's jurisdiction and method of appeal.
Tariff of 1789
This was the first law passed by Congress. It was designed to protect the infant industries of the U.S. by placing a duty of 8% on imports.
Hamilton's Financial Plan
It was created by Alexander Hamilton to stabilized the American economy. It consitsted of federal assumption of all debts, includign state and federal debts. Along with this, he proposed the chartering of the U.S. bank to help restore American credit.
Report on the Bank and Manufacturers 1790
It was a study made by Hamilton and was the basis for his financial plan. He stated that the future of the U.S. would be in industry and manufacturing. Jefferson and the Democratic-republicans opposed this because they wanted and agriculturally based nation
Residence act 1790
It authorized the president to choose the site for the capital that was not larger then 10 square miles.
This bank was parto of Hamilton's plan and was 80% privately owned and 20% government owned. It gave out loans to the aristocracy, paid government bills, printed money, and collected revenues. It had a capital stock of $10 million and served as a depository for federal funds
It refereed to mutual aid in legislative bodies (the house and senate) to pass laws for the benefit of the country
Whiskey Rebellion 1794
The small farmers of western Pennsylvania rose up in rebellion against an excise tax on whiskey. this tax fell heavily on western farmers who condensed their corn to whiskey. They reused to pay the tax, attacked tax collectors, and began a march to Pittsburgh. President Washington sent 13000 and the rebels' protest quickly ended.
This political party was formed by Jefferson and it opposed the Alexander Hamilton's Financial Plan. It supported the common man and espoused the belief that the best government was the one that governed the least
Washington's Farewell Address
Washington started the farewell address custom when he left office. It was published in newspapers and primarily addressed domestic problems. HE also stated the U.S. should avoid any entaglement in European affairs and wars.
The Alien Act 1798
It increased the residence requirements to become a citizen from 5 years to 14 years. It empowered the president to deport dangerous (ant-Federalist) foreigners and authorized the imprisonment of aliens during war.
The Sedition Act
It stated that any opposition to the legal measures of the government or slander of the government could be punished by both a heavy fine and imprisonment.
Rule of 1756
In 1793, England announced that it would enforce this. This stated that trade closed during peace could not be opened during war. Under this, the British navy seized 150 U.S. ships.
French Revolution 1789
Reacting to the oppressive aristocracy, the French middle and lower classes overthrew the king and asserted power for themselves in a violent and bloody revolution. This uprising was inspired by America's independence from England and the Enlightenment ideas
He was a French statesman who came to America in search of monetary aid. He asked for private donations to France and recruited American privateers (pirates plundering for another country).
Neutrality Act 1793
France waged war against England and Spain in 1793 and sought the U.S. as their ally. Washington did not want to become entangled with the European problem so he kept America out of the war.
This was a treaty between Britain and America, which required Britain to withdraw her troops from the Northwest Posts in exchange for many more concession from America. The Treaty was so unfavorable for the U.S. that it barely was ratified by the State
Pinckney's Treaty (San Lorenzo) 1795
This treaty was between Spain and America and settled the Florida-Georgia border dispute by defining the border. It also removed the payment of tariffs by American ships at the port of New Orleans.
Right of Deposit
This was the right to pass through a port and trade goods without paying taxes. Wesernmers wanted this privilege at the port of New Orleans.
XYZ Affair 1797
During her war against other European nations, France began to seize goods from neutral American cargo ships. John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry, and C.C. Pinckney, U.S. representatives attempted to meet with French Foreihn Minister Talleyrand to settle the dispute. However, anonymous French ministers X, Y, and Z required a loan of 32 million florins and $250,000 in cahs to even consider negotiations. Americans demanded war after this incident.
Convention of 1800 (Treaty of Morfontaine)
This treaty was between France and America and formally dissolved the Franco-American military alliance, but required the U.S. government to pay claims of $20 million to U.S. citizens. This was the start of a long-lasting peace with France
The Shawnee Indians of the Ohio River Valley crushed U.S. troops along the Wabash River. He was sent by the U.S. government to stop the Indians in the river valley. He chased the Shawnee to Fallen Timbers, where the Shawnee Indians surrendered in 1794.