First Progressive president. VP in 1900, Political Independence, "A square deal for all." Uses bully pulpit.
Killed McKinley for the "good of the people."
Killed Garfield because earlier he'd petitioned to be French ambassador, supported stalwarts, God told him to kill pres.
Civil Service Reform- have to apply for a gov't job
Born out of Grange movement-centered in Iowa-Oliver Kelly
ran in 1892 for Populists. Omaha (NJ) platform, fails because poor whites/blacks don't unite
initiative, referendum, recall, direct election of Senate, more gov't involvement, silver, 8 hour workday
Panic of 1893
farmers hit hard, Jacob Coxey's army marches on D.C.
Election of 1896
Dem. Bryan v. Rep. McKinley- Hanna runs for McK, McK wins because there's an economic revival. Victory of businessmen over farmers.
Political goals of Progressivism
Improving democracy, getting rid of corruption
Tom Johnson, Sam "Golden Rule" Jones, Emil Seidel the socialist, Hiram Johnson, Charles Evans Hughes of NY.
Robert "Battlin' Bob" Lafolette
Gov'r of Wisconsin, set example
Economic goals of Progressivism
limit power of big business, restore opportunity
Social goals of Progressivism
women's suffrage, working children, immigrants, religious element-social gospel. Women most active.
McClures magazine published, Ida Tarbell i.e. History of Standard Oil i.e. Rockefeller. Jacob Riis i.e. How the Other Half Lives. Upton Sinclair i.e. The Jungle. Edward Bellamy i.e. Looking Backward. Lincoln Steffens i.e. Shame of the Cities. Frank Norris i.e. The Octopus i.e. RRs.
Public Relations Dept
Response to muckrakers. Repudiate claims.
1. secret ballot
2. direct primary
3. 17th Amendment
initiative, referendum, recall
belief of prohibition. Women's Christian Temperance Union. Francis Willard, Carrie A. Nation. A successful failure.
1840-Seneca Falls. E. Cady Stanton. NAWSA led by Carrie Chapman Catt
Alice Paul and Lucy Burns
Wanted national push.
Lochner v. NY
14th A to challenge. Lochner wins, bakers get to work as long as they want.
Muller v. Oregon
Louis Brandeis uses economic/socialogical arguments to win the case for Muller.
Hammer v. Dagenhart
5:4 overturning Keating Owen Child Labor Law. Cannot limit hours of children
by 1917, 80% states makes co.s liable for injuries on the job
Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch
Jane Addams, Robert Woods, Jacob Riis
Anthracite Coal Strike (1902)
John Mitchell and United Mine Workers v. George Baer. Teddy calls them to White House, 10% raise and 9 hour workday.
Northern Securities Corporation Case
John Pierpont Morgan, Edward Henry Harriman, James J. Hill make a stock holding company. U.S. wins because power exists.
Elkins Act (1903)
illegal to accept rebates/kickbacks
Hepburn Act (1906)
power to ICC-gov't can inspect RR records/set rates
Meat Inspection Act/Pure Food and Drug Act
gov't can inspect. "FDA approved"
take over utilities
TR takes 150 million acres
Newlands Act (1902)
irrigation of the Southwest-->immigration from Mexico
environmentalist. Started nat'l parks
William Henry Taft
more of a judge. wife Nellie was ambitious. went after trusts.
gives more power to the Interstate Commerce Commission over telegraph/telephones
graduated income tax
direct election of Senators
Taft signs it even though it's "payneful"! Hahaha
Old Guard v. Progressives
split between Taft and TR
Speaker Joe Cannon
too powerful. Now decisions approved by the whole House.
Richard Ballinger-Gifford Pinchot affair
sec of interior v. chief forester-->leads to TR running in the Election of 1892
Election of 1912
Progressive (Bull-Moose party)-TR-->New Nat'lism, expansion of gov't power, regulate oil, down tariffs, do what's good for public welfare
Dem-Woodrow Wilson-->New Freedom, free enterprise, no privileges (triple wall of privilege-trusts, tariffs, high finance)
THOMAS Woodrow Wilson's presidency
failure at the time, success now. Academic. Made Bryan sec of state. Goes after tariffs. DUMB LOBBYISTS
Underwood Tariff (1913)
significant drop. graduated income tax...very low for some
Federal Reserve Act (1913)
bank for bankers
Federal Trade Commission (1914)
can investigate and prosecute "unfair" business practices
Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914)
strengthened SAT Act. No monopolies. Made directors personally liable. Exempted unions from the SAT Act. Gompers is ecstatic.
Adamson Act (1916)
8 hour workday for RR workers
Federal Farm Loan Act (1916)
Keating Owen Child Labor Act (1916)
14 years of age, hour restrictions until 16
Conditions for blacks
Political=disenfranchisement-literacy tests, poll taxes, white primaries, lynching, grandfather clause. Limited poor whites too
Economic=sharecroppers, tenant farming
Social=Jim Crow laws-segregation
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
segregation legal. Louisiana Separate Car Act. Plessy thrown off, "separate but equal." Only Brown v. Board of Edu ends segregation for good.
Booker T. Washington
"Cast down your bucket where you are" -Atlanta Exposition Speech. Wanted gradual, start at the bottom
W.E.B. Du Bois
"manly agitation." Black pride, Niagara Falls 1905, NAACP founded 1909
2. no more discrimination in public accomodations
3. right of men to be with whomever they want
4. laws enforced on rich as well as poor-equal protection
Nat't Assoc for Advancement of Colored Peoples
founded by Du Bois and 8 white liberals. Paper The Crisis
Successes of Progressivism
women's movement, safer work environment, income tax, consumer protection, referendum, initiative, local success, trust busting, temperance, protect environment
Limitations of Progressivism
blacks left out, internal conflict, still a gap, labor reform, still need corporations, prohibition, Taft, women's lives not really changed.