First Progressive president. VP in 1900, Political Independence, "A square deal for all." Uses bully pulpit.
Killed Garfield because earlier he'd petitioned to be French ambassador, supported stalwarts, God told him to kill pres.
ran in 1892 for Populists. Omaha (NJ) platform, fails because poor whites/blacks don't unite
initiative, referendum, recall, direct election of Senate, more gov't involvement, silver, 8 hour workday
Election of 1896
Dem. Bryan v. Rep. McKinley- Hanna runs for McK, McK wins because there's an economic revival. Victory of businessmen over farmers.
Political goals of Progressivism
Improving democracy, getting rid of corruption
Tom Johnson, Sam "Golden Rule" Jones, Emil Seidel the socialist, Hiram Johnson, Charles Evans Hughes of NY.
Social goals of Progressivism
women's suffrage, working children, immigrants, religious element-social gospel. Women most active.
McClures magazine published, Ida Tarbell i.e. History of Standard Oil i.e. Rockefeller. Jacob Riis i.e. How the Other Half Lives. Upton Sinclair i.e. The Jungle. Edward Bellamy i.e. Looking Backward. Lincoln Steffens i.e. Shame of the Cities. Frank Norris i.e. The Octopus i.e. RRs.
1. secret ballot
2. direct primary
3. 17th Amendment
initiative, referendum, recall
belief of prohibition. Women's Christian Temperance Union. Francis Willard, Carrie A. Nation. A successful failure.
Anthracite Coal Strike (1902)
John Mitchell and United Mine Workers v. George Baer. Teddy calls them to White House, 10% raise and 9 hour workday.
Northern Securities Corporation Case
John Pierpont Morgan, Edward Henry Harriman, James J. Hill make a stock holding company. U.S. wins because power exists.
Richard Ballinger-Gifford Pinchot affair
sec of interior v. chief forester-->leads to TR running in the Election of 1892
Election of 1912
Progressive (Bull-Moose party)-TR-->New Nat'lism, expansion of gov't power, regulate oil, down tariffs, do what's good for public welfare
Dem-Woodrow Wilson-->New Freedom, free enterprise, no privileges (triple wall of privilege-trusts, tariffs, high finance)
THOMAS Woodrow Wilson's presidency
failure at the time, success now. Academic. Made Bryan sec of state. Goes after tariffs. DUMB LOBBYISTS
Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914)
strengthened SAT Act. No monopolies. Made directors personally liable. Exempted unions from the SAT Act. Gompers is ecstatic.
Conditions for blacks
Political=disenfranchisement-literacy tests, poll taxes, white primaries, lynching, grandfather clause. Limited poor whites too
Economic=sharecroppers, tenant farming
Social=Jim Crow laws-segregation
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
segregation legal. Louisiana Separate Car Act. Plessy thrown off, "separate but equal." Only Brown v. Board of Edu ends segregation for good.
Booker T. Washington
"Cast down your bucket where you are" -Atlanta Exposition Speech. Wanted gradual, start at the bottom
2. no more discrimination in public accomodations
3. right of men to be with whomever they want
4. laws enforced on rich as well as poor-equal protection
Nat't Assoc for Advancement of Colored Peoples
founded by Du Bois and 8 white liberals. Paper The Crisis
Successes of Progressivism
women's movement, safer work environment, income tax, consumer protection, referendum, initiative, local success, trust busting, temperance, protect environment