As Tim was swinging his toy hammer, the hammer flew out of his hand and landed behind the couch and out of view. Rather than look for it, Tim acted as though the hammer no longer existed. Tim's behavior suggests that he is in the _____ of cognitive development.
Mark was upset because he only got half a sandwich while his older sister got two halves of a sandwich. After his mother cut his half sandwich into two pieces, Mark was perfectly happy. Mark is probably in the _____ stage of cognitive development.
Janeen touches her newborn's cheek. Her baby turns toward Janeen's hand and opens her mouth. Janeen has triggered which reflex?
the rooting reflex
According to Erikson's theory, the psychosocial conflict that needs to be resolved during adolescence is:
identity versus role confusion.
When Carol was 8 years old, her mother died. As an adult, Carol has no memories of attending her mother's funeral. Which ego defense mechanism in Freud's theory would best account for the fact that Carol has no memories of this upsetting event?
Permissive-_____ parents are responsive to their children but do not exert much control over them. Permissive- _____ parents do not impose rules on their children and are also not very responsive to them.
) indulgent; indifferent
Gillian's club is planning a 5K race as a fund-raiser. Because Gillian had never run in a race before, she was certain that she would not be able to complete the 5K and instead volunteered to screen and register the runners. How might the social cognitive theory be used to explain Gillian's behavior?
Gillian has a strong sense of self-efficacy when it comes to talking to people and writing down information, but she has a weak sense of self-efficacy when it comes to running in a race.
People with a high level of achievement motivation
have the capacity to delay gratification in order to achieve their goals
In psychoanalyst Karen Horney's view, people who move "against" others have a strong need for
power and feelings of superiority.
Eight-year-old Alex plays almost exclusively with the other boys at his grade school. Alex's behavior suggests that he is in the _____ stage of psychosexual development.
According to Freud, what was "the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activity" of the mind
the interpretation of dreams
When parents are consistently warm and responsive to their infant, the infant is likely to develop a(n) _____ attachment to the parents; when parents neglect the infant, are inconsistent, or insensitive to the infant's needs, the infant is likely to develop a(n) _____ attachment to the parents.
Which of the following statements best describes Jung's notion of archetypes
Each person inherits mental images that reflect universal human themes
Dylan wishes to apply the research on "possible selves" to help him become more motivated in college. As a first step, he should
become consciously aware of the possible selves that he already holds and evaluate their effect on him.
If Claudia wishes to make sure that her newborn infant can see her face as clearly as possible, Claudia should position her face so that she is about _____ away from her newborn's face.
six to twelve inches
Your textbook describes the classic conservation task in which a 5-year-old child observes equal amounts of liquid in two identical short, wide containers. The child watches as liquid is poured from one short, wide container into a tall, thin container, and is then asked which container holds more water. How does a typical 5-year-old respond?
"The tall, thin container has more water."
Humanistic theories of personality have helped promote the scientific study of:
creativity and the healthy personality.
Children with _____ parents are more likely to rebel, while children with _____ parents are more likely to lack self-control.
Ever since she was a few weeks old, Shelly has been an unusually contented baby who slept and ate well and adapted easily to new experiences. A developmental psychologist would probably describe Shelly's temperament as being:
The basic characteristics that are associated with motivated behavior are
activation, persistence, and intensity.
People who rank high on the need for varied, complex, and unique sensory experiences are referred to as
_____ is a form of _____ in which sexual urges are channeled into productive, socially acceptable, nonsexual activities
Humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers contended that the most basic human motive is:
the actualizing tendency.
Four-year-old Brooke throws a tantrum when her parents want to leave the playground and go home. Instead of punishing her, Brooke's parents patiently and lovingly try to teach Brooke a more acceptable way of coping with disappointment and frustration. Using Carl Rogers's terminology, Brooke is experiencing a high degree of _____ from her parents.
unconditional positive regard
According to Eysenck's theory, the four basic personality types are:
extraverted-neurotic; extraverted-stable; introverted-neurotic; and introverted-stable.
Dr. Barkulis is a trait theorist. He would be most likely to describe an individual in terms of her
unique combination of characteristics or attributes.
Temperament researchers agree that individual differences in temperament have a genetic and biological basis. Researchers also agree that
environmental experiences can modify a child's basic temperament.
The three dimensions of emotion include
subjective experience, a physiological response, and behavioral expression
Raymond Cattell used a statistical technique called _____ to sort through a large number of personality traits and identify those that represented the most basic dimensions of personality.
Which neural pathway carries crude information about a threatening stimulus and activates a rapid instinctual alarm response?
the thalamus→amygdala pathway
One shortcoming of incentive theories is that they
fail to explain behaviors that are not primarily motivated by any kind of external incentive.
Two self-report inventories that were originally designed to assess the personality characteristics of normal populations are
the California Personality Inventory (CPI) and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF).
Although he stayed calm during the conversation, Mark was angry as he left Professor McArthur's office because he felt he had been treated unfairly. A short while later, Mark snapped at a fellow student who asked if she could borrow his notes. Which ego defense mechanism best accounts for Mark's behavior toward the other student?
Thirty-year-old Alayna is painfully shy and so sensitive to rejection that she rarely talks to people other than her coworkers and her family members. Occasionally, a man asks her out, but she always refuses. She spends a good deal of time reading and writing in her diary about her loneliness and other feelings. According to Erikson's theory, Alayna is facing the psychosocial conflict of _____ and is likely to develop _____.
intimacy versus isolation; isolation
The emphasis on unconscious mental processes is to _____ as the emphasis on learning and conscious cognitive processes is to _____.
the psychoanalytic perspective; the social cognitive perspective
Nicholas is 15 years old. Talking with his friends, he says, "Sometimes I think I would like to be a scientist, someone who makes discoveries that help people. Then I think that maybe a career in politics or medicine is more my style. I can't decide whether I should study pre-med, pre-law, or maybe microbiology." It is likely that Nicholas is in the _____ of identity development.
Despite the fact that Jacob is actually incompetent at many of the tasks that his job entails, he is constantly bragging about his accomplishments, abilities, and skills. Alfred Adler would probably suggest that Jacob has developed _____ to cover up his weaknesses.
a superiority complex
The "Big Five" are:
neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
According to Bandura's theory, which of the following factors is likely to contribute to the self-regulation of behavior?
observing other people's behavior and the consequences of their actions
The Focus on Neuroscience described an fMRI study that investigated how people with different personality traits responded to positive and negative images. What was the major conclusion of this study?
Specific personality traits are associated with individual differences in the brain's response to emotional stimuli.
Many psychoanalytic ideas are difficult to test because
they cannot be operationally defined and objectively measured
Jeremy was required to take a lie detector test before he could be hired at the bank. Although Jeremy told the truth, the person administering the test said that Jeremy was lying. Because Jeremy supposedly failed the lie detector test, he did not get the job with the bank. Jeremy was the victim of:
an incorrect judgment called a false positive.
Which of the following is the BEST example of how achievement motivation might be expressed in a collectivistic culture?
You study hard to gain admission to a top university because you want to enhance your family's social standing.
Which definition reflects Freud's view of the id
the irrational component of personality that seeks immediate gratification
Mrs. Hall has always enjoyed quiet, solitary pursuits, such as gardening and reading. Now that she is almost 80, the activity theory of aging would predict that her life satisfaction will be highest if she:
continues to pursue the activities that she has always enjoyed
Dr. Mathias believes that behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs that "push" us to behave in certain ways. Dr. Mathias's views are most consistent with _____ theories of motivation.
Motivated behavior directed toward excelling, succeeding, or outperforming others at some task is called
Which of the following represents the correct order of prenatal development
) germinal period, embryonic period, fetal period
In adolescence, personal identity tends to shift from the _____ self-descriptions that characterized childhood to more _____ self-descriptions.
Your textbook describes a research study that was designed to test the ability of graphologists to use handwriting samples to distinguish among occupational groups. What were the results of this study?
The graphologists predicted that they would be 100 percent accurate in distinguishing among occupational groups, but their overall performance was only slightly better than that of untrained evaluators.
In Freud's theory, if a parent overindulges or frustrates the child's expression of pleasurable feelings at a particular psychosexual stage of development
the child may experience fixation and continue to seek pleasure through behaviors associated with the particular psychosexual stage
Which of the following would characterize a child who is in the concrete operational stage of cognitive development?
The child can think logically but his or her use of logic tends to be limited to tangible events or objects.
Ten-year-old Ben helped his five-year-old sister, Hannah, learn how to tie her shoelaces. This example illustrates which concept?
Vygotsky's zone of proximal development
Behavior driven by rewards, rules, and responsibilities is to _____ as behavior motivated by enjoyment, satisfaction, or challenge is to _____.
extrinsic motivation; intrinsic motivation