emergent literacy theory
children grow into reading and writing with no real beginning or ending point, reading and writing develop concurrently and in interrelated ways, and the learning process starts long before children enter school and does not depend on mastery of letter-sound skills.
means that reading and writing are related and are reciprocal processes that influence each other.
Whole Language approach
learned in a social and emotional context. Whole language promotes the development of reading and other communication skills in a social, communicative network.
Conventions of print
knowledge of the semantic and visual structure of text. Children learn about print and come to realize that print differs from speech, although it carries a message just like speech. Eventually, children learn that print, not pictures, carries the story.
Functions of print
awareness of the uses of print: making shopping lists, reading street signs, conveying instructions.
The knowledge that printed words carry meaning, and that reading and writing are ways to obtain ideas and information. A young child's sensitivity to print is one of the first steps toward reading.
an exclusively oral language activity. Phonemic awareness refers to the understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds called phonemes. Instruction in phonemic awareness should be viewed as an important element of a balanced reading program in the early elementary grades.
matching elemental sounds and the letters that represent themThe knowledge that speech sounds can be represented by a letter or letters and that when a given sound occurs anywhere in a word, it can be represented by the same letters..
Social interaction - support by adults and peers
From the emergent literacy perspective, reading and writing develop concurrently and interrelatedly in young children and are fostered by experience with oral and written language. The more social interaction children have with adults and peers in terms of using written language or enjoying written language (story-book reading together, grocery lists, stop signs, etc), the easier it is for these children to develop into strong readers.
Frequent experiences with print
the more exposure children have to print, the more they understand the concepts about print. A classroom with many different words displayed on the walls helps children add words to their vocabulary.
Prior Knowledge or schema
Schema refers to a reader's background experience, knowledge, interests, attitudes, perspectives, and present context or situation in reading.
The process of language acquisition
consists of the child inferring the underlying rules of the language that he or she is exposed to, and testing those inferences by constructing his or her own utterances.
explanation of words and letters helps children understand that letters have sounds and words have meaning.
interaction between children and adults helps children grasp the meaning of letters and sounds of letters.
Books and stories selected for sharing should be those that have been proven to be loved by children, they should have literary merit and engaging content. Shared book experiences result in higher end-of-year achievement scores and phonic analysis test scores.
reading the same stories that children enjoy several times helps them with their comprehension, listening skills, and recognition of sight words.
asking children to respond to what has been read to them helps them understand that the purpose of reading is to understand the meaning of the words. It helps them understand that people can express themselves through writing, and that writing has meaning.
a teacher must create a word wall rather than just "have" a word wall.Using a word wall of high-frequency words aids in reading and writing. It is common for a teacher to add 5 new words per week.
Text innovation (rewrites)
rewriting a story helps children to understand how they can create stories and helps them understand the meaning of stories.
students are given the opportunity to share in the writing process. Teacher and students co-construct the message.
King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table
originated about 1000AD. It is a romance; it is a story about brave men and defenseless women.
Are the picture books easy to follow, and so they tell a story in an organized way, so that children can understand the story without the use of the written word?
A teacher needs to consider the age of the students and select poetry that she/he believes they will be able to relate to and enjoy. For example, for younger children, a teacher may select poems that have more alliteration and repetition of words.
When selecting fiction, a good balance of realistic stories, modern fantasies, historical fiction, and mysteries is important so that all areas of interest are covered.
is imaginative writing that accurately reflects life either in the past or present. It has a prose narrative with a plot that unfolds through the character's actions, speech, and thoughts.
is information from the immediate sentence, paragraph, or surrounding words that might help readers determine the meaning and/or pronunciation of an unknown word.
has to do with meaning cues. Semantic cues are the answer to the question "what makes sense?";clues are provided by the knowledge the readers has through the meanings of other words in the text.
relates to the sentence structure, or grammar, and what kind of word normally fills a given slot (noun, adverb, adjective, etc). clues are provided by the structure of the sentence.
decoding a word,
they are trying to make a connection between the written word and the idea or thing it explicitly represents, so they would be concerned with organizing ideas and generating questions to be researched.
Relationship to print
students first learn to recognize known words and letters in familiar books and contexts.
Recognizing whole words
sight words are words that children have seen so often that they know them instantly. Often, sight words are words that cannot be sounded out phonetically.
students who can recognize words patterns have a better chance of reading the words correctly. For example, when two vowels appear in a word and one is an e at the end of the word, the first vowel is generally long and the final e is silent (cape, rope, kite).
Letters in sequence
helping children to recognize consonant blended sounds such as, wh, str, tr, sp, sh, ch, etc...
Use of prior knowledge
through a series of guided questions, the instructor helps students activate their prior knowledge of a specific topic to help them comprehend the content of a story or article on the same topic.
have students retell what they just read to themselves or a partner. Retelling should reflect the main idea, the correct sequence of events, the characters, setting, interpretation, and response.
kids take turns learning from each other. This helps students make predictions, formulate questions, summarize information, and clarify points of confusion when reading.
an essential part of an early literacy program. Teachers observe students as they problem solve. Students learn to problem solve with new texts. Students experience success in reading for meaning.
The goal of teaching reading is to increase the level of silent reading comprehension. In order for a student to focus attention on the meaning of sentences and paragraphs, he/she must be a fluent reader.
responding to literature helps to increase the level of comprehension for the material.
emphasizing what the child already knows will help in solving words and interpreting the story.
Adjusting reading according to purpose and context
Selecting text that will support the child's present knowledge and skills.
helps students become aware of their own reading comprehension abilities and needs, and to learn specific strategies that can be used to monitor and adjust reading behaviors to fit their own comprehension needs.
Practicing fluent oral reading aids in understanding the close relationship between speech and print.
Knowledge about a reading topic helps to improve comprehension. Proficient readers use background knowledge to enhance their understanding.
an acronym for survey, question, read, recite, review. This method provides students with a logical progression to study, and multiple encounters with the new material.
students survey the chapter, read and think about the title, headings, subheadings, captions under any pictures, vocabulary in bold print, side entries on each page and the summary.
students should use the preceding information to write anticipatory questions about what they are about to read.
students tests themselves on the material. Anything difficult to remember should be rehearsed aloud or recited. The multi-sensory experience helps the difficult material to move into short-term, and with practice, long-term memory.
Marking and coding
it is very helpful when reading books to highlight or underline important characteristics of characters, character names, and important quotes that one might use to support a thesis about the book.
a map or graph that summarizes information to be learned, and is distributed to students before beginning a new chapter or unit of study.
children use a pencil or crayon to explore the vast empty space on a blank sheet of paper.
children use letters to represent words, but not based on phonics. They could use the letter Q to mean the "dog," or an entire sentence, or paragraph.
helps develop phonetic awareness in children. They may spell their favorite words with a single letter.
children begin to use real letters, usually capital letters, to represent their meaning.
children begin to use letters, usually capital consonant letters, to represent words.
the addition of more than 1 or 2 consonants with at least one vowel, used by young writers to represent the spelling of words.
writing looks like English, but the words are a mix of phonemic and conventional spellings.
means that students take turns explaining to each other and learning from each other.
stands for Attention Deficit Disorder. It is a medical term used to describe students with difficulties of attention.
stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It is a medial term used to describe students with hyperactivity, attention difficulties, and impulsiveness.
Work produced by students and used by instructors for purposes of interaction and also evaluation.
BD (Behavior Disorder)
A term used in special education to describe students who have an explained inability to learn, have problems relating to other children and adults, continually exhibit inappropriate behaviors or who have a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears about personal and school problems.
statement that provides a description of student knowledge expected at specific grades, ages, or developmental levels.
There are six categories of cognitive objectives organized by complexity: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation.
closed constructed response
a type of question that requires the student to compose an answer rather than select an answer from a list of choices. There is only one right answer.
when students work with others to achieve a specific goal, purpose, or outcome.
Common Assessment Framework
is a method for organizing the teaching/learning experiences of students by establishing subject outcomes and measuring the attainment of these with well defined performance criteria.
a type of question that requires the student to compose an answer rather than select an answer from a list of choices. There are closed and open-ended constructed response questions.
recognized that students come from different backgrounds (ethnic, geographic, religious, and economic).
the process of developing teaching and learning styles and materials related to the different levels of pupil understanding and ability.
a role for literature groups. This individual leads the discussion as well as asks 5 thick questions.
The Individual Education Plan developed for each child eligible for special education, based on the child's unique needs, with parent participation, containing a statement of the child's present level of performance, educational needs, goals and measurable objectives. Is reviewed at least annually.
stands for Learning Disability. This is a term in special education to describe a disorder in one of the basic psychological processes (listening, thinking, speaking, writing, spelling, etc).
A form of individualized, active learning, in which the student proposes a course of study to satisfy an academic requirement and a teacher checks and approves the contract.
a mode of learning; an individual's preferred or best manner(s) in which to think, process information, and demonstrate learning.
a role for literature groups. This individual chooses 4 pieces of text to discuss with the group.
a reading experience that allows students to share their information and ideas related to a novel they are reading.
A module is a series of theme-related questions that progress in difficulty and open-endedness; beginning with multiple choice questions, advancing to opened-ended constructed response questions, and ending with a performance event.
Howard Gardner proposes that all humans are endowed with seven forms of intelligence: mathematical/logical, linguistic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, spatial, and kinesthetic. Schools usually emphasize the linguistic and mathematical/logical intelligences.
open-ended constructed response
a type of question that requires the student to compose an answer rather than select an answer from a list of choices. There is more than one right answer.
is "on demand" in that it is used for assessment purposes. It is a real-world, robust, problematic situation that monitors student progress towards the attainment of predetermined criteria.
-a real-world, highly robust problematic situation that requires students to use specified knowledge, skills, and processes in various content domains.
A program in the Microsoft Office suite which allows users to create presentations, and handouts. By creating PowerPoint "slides," users can add color, images, sounds, and movies to their text presentations.
is the first stage of the writing process. It is when a writer gathers his/her thoughts before writing. This can be done by making a list, web, outline, etc.
-also known as a mid-quarter. It is a report that shows the progress of your child. It is sent in the middle of each quarter.
Learner pauses to think about, and organize information gathered from reading, discussions, or other activities.
these are the sheets that are completed for the literature groups. The roles include Discussion Director, Literary Luminary, Connector, Illustrator, and Vocabulary Enricher.
also known as a scoring guide. It is used as a set of guidelines for evaluating a student's work.
scope and sequence
A curriculum plan, usually in chart form, in which a range of instructional objectives, skills, etc., is organized according to the successive levels at which they are taught.
the students and their needs are the focus and the teacher becomes the facilitator among them. The students are active participants in the learning process.
materials and/or activities used to extend or strengthen the topic being covered.
In education, a branch of knowledge based on the development and implementation of computers, software, and other technical tools, and the assessment and evaluation of students' educational outcomes resulting from their use of technology tools.
a question that requires more than a one or two word response. It causes a person to think.
a question that has a one or two word answer. It is usually a yes/no question or a recall of information.
a role in literature groups. This individual locates four words to look up and find their definitions.
inquiry-oriented activity in which some or all of the information that learners interact with comes from information on the Internet.
learning situation in which the teacher assits the students in developing their writing by learning the writing process and introducing different writing genres.
A writing prompt gives definition and direction to the assigned topic. It can be as simple as a general idea, or complex enough to define the position of the thesis as well as the supporting paragraph.
1. the function or work of a teacher; teaching2. the art or science of teaching; education; instructional methods.
a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor
the repetition of sounds, most often consonant sounds, at the beginning of words. Alliteration gives emphasis to words.
An expression in one language that cannot be matched or directly translated word for word into another language.
a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity
a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with 'like' or 'as')
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
Originally "Schneewittchen", one of the Folk tales collected and published by the Brothers Grimm.
a 1943 children's novel by Esther Forbes, retells in narrative form the final years in Boston, Massachusetts prior to the outbreak of the American Revolution.
Summer of my German Soldier
Bette Greene's first and best-known novel, chronicles one summer in the life of a twelve-year-old Jewish girl in the rural South.
Daughter of Earth
(1929) is an autobiographical novel by the American author and journalist Agnes Smedley.
My Brother Sam is Dead
tells the story of a boy, Timothy (called Tim), who lives in Redding, Connecticut during the Revolutionary War.
Island of the Blue Dolphins
Contemporary Fiction based on true story of a woman marooned on an Island for 18 years.
to the artist of the most distinguished American picture book for children published that year. It was named in honor of nineteenth-century English illustrator Randolph Caldecott.
The Newbery Medal is given annually by the American Library Association to the year's most distinguished book written by an American.It was named for John Newbery, a bookseller and book publisher who wrote what is considered the first children's book, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, in 1744.
an explicit understanding of how learning works and an awareness of yourself as a learner.
the cognitive process of thinking about what you will do in the event of something happening
grouping related items together; common memory strategy in early grade school and improves as our knowledge base expands
Semantic organizers (also called semantic maps or semantic webs) are graphic organizers that look somewhat like a spider web. In a semantic organizer, lines connect a central concept to a variety of related ideas and events.
Clustering is a nonlinear activity that generates ideas, images and feelings around a stimulus word. As students cluster, their thoughts tumble out, enlarging their word bank for writing and often enabling them to see patterns in their ideas.
an idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives
Freely exploring topics, choosing a topic, and gathering and organizing details before you write.
helps readers understand the text on a deeper level by eliminating confusion and stimulating interest in the topic