U.S Army officer and commander of Civil War and Indian Wars. Known for disastrous engagement in Battle of Little Horn
Department stores and mail ordering phenomenon
the phenomenon of consumerism, post-industrial rev. garnered the change from local businesses to big sell-all stores-->
changed the way ppl bought products, BRANDS big deal, invented to serve ELITE
Annexation of Hawaii
in 1893, a group of American planters organized a coup and overthrew Hawaii's queen
u.s federal gov't agency that aided distressed refugees and freed slaves from 1865-1872 during the Reconstruction era. Provided aid for food, housing, education, healthcare, and job contracts
Roosevelt's military group (ivy leaguers, westerners, N.A's--excluded blacks) that fought in Spanish American war to restore manhood and nation's unity
the polit. idea that the power of the people should increase, and urges social and polit. system changes. ex: to restore democracy & econ. opportunity, give public ownership of R.R co's
"Pacific Railroad" and later as the "Overland Route") was a railroad line built in the United States between 1863 and 1869 by the Central Pacific Railroad of California and the Union Pacific Railroad connected the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States by rail for the first time.
Chinese Exclusion Act
in 1882, Congress bans Chinese immig. from entering the U.S
The Compromise of 1877
the result of the presidential election btwn the North and South. South said: U.S can have a Northern pres.--> but we get to deal w/ "Negro problem". new pres: Rutherford B. Hayes. end of reconstruction
Rutherford B. Hayes
a Northern politician who became pres. from result of Compromise of 1877. marked the end of Reconstruction
a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land. replaces slavery in South post-civil war. Sharecropping bound by law (which slaves couldn't read) to buy seeds and "own land"
an agricultural production system in which landowners contribute land and farmers contribute labor.
a system used in the South post-Civil war where laborers are bound in servitude until their debts are paid in full
texas and other farmer's alliances
in 1870s, 1st grass roots, rural alliance of Southern farmers (first worker's union)
John D. Rockefeller
robber baron who dominated the oil industry, philanthropist, anti-union. founded Standard Oil Company. started career as Cleveland merchant's clerk
Standard oil company
world's first and largerst multinational OIL corporation- controlled 90% of nation's oil industry in late 19th century, broken up by U.S gov't in1911
40 acres and a mule
a phrase popular in the south that referred to the right of newly freed slaves to redistributed lands (partic. those plantations taken over by U.S troops in war. Blacks were promised ~40 acres of land and the Union army's help securing loaned mules
vertical concentration/ integration
a business management strategy that occurs when a business expands its control over other business that are part of its overall manufacturing process.
Ex: an oil refining business would be vertically integrated if it owned or controlled pipeline companies, railroads, barrel manufacturers, etc.. CARNEGIE introduced the idea to manage his steel co.
a radical women feminist who founded the Equal Rights Party and advocated for Free Love
became vice pres. to Mckinley in 2nd pres.--> became president after McKinley assassinated. background info: wealthy, elite man from NYC who supported Spanish-Amer. war to restore manhood and nation's unity, well-liked by Americans
1864-the amend. that abolished slavery. was a first step for freeing slaves.
1868-the amend. that said all people born in the U.S are citizens (gave black ppl citizenship)
1870-the amend. that said you can't deny a citizen the right to vote based on race, color etc... Gave black men the right to vote (excluded white women)
equivalent to Ellis Island but on West coast, was a place that processed immigrants coming to the U.S
ku klux klan
white supremacist group, formed in 1866 in response to Civil Rights Bill to terrorize former slaves who voted and held polit. offices during Reconstruction.
a neg. term southerners gave northerners who moved to the south for econ. reasons (to "take advantage" of southerners)
mary elizabeth lease
1890s-suffragist who also supported populists. one of 1st female lawyers in Kansas, supported farmers' rights.
dirtiest kind of prostitutes during the Victorian era, women were displayed in windows and on the streets
became pres. in 1896. supported Gold for currency during Greenback crisis, pres. during the Spanish-American war-- originally didn't want to go to war, last Civil war veteran. was assassinated during reelected presidency
founded in 1892, it advocated a variety of reform issues, including free coinage of silver, income tax, postal savings, regulation of RRs, and direct election of U.S senators
white southerners who had fought against secession and then joined Union. loyal to South until post-1865, then worked for Union
feminist suffragist from New England, editor of feminist magazine: "Woman's Journal and Suffrage News"
took place in 1840s, the first big support for women's suffrage movement. used abolitionist movement as model. protest against Victorian era womanhood codes
created as response to urbanization and growing # of immigrants during industrial era, narrow 4 or 5 story buildings with few windows, limited plumbing & electricity, and tiny rooms packed with ppl, mostly blacks and immigranst
businessmen who were interested in controlling all aspects of the economy
leader of Radical Republicans in House of Reps during Civil War and Reconstruction, from Penn. where was Quaker hist., anti-slavery-wrong for humane reasons
lincoln's reconstruction plan
Lincoln's plan to reconstruct the South post-civil war: made it easy for Confederates to rejoin the Union-- if 10% voters take oath of allegiance--> let back into union
Native Americans called black soldiers this term when black ppl first came to N.A lands and fought in special black regiment of U.S army, to take land away from N.A
the 2nd woman (slightly older than 1st) from the Equals Rights Party to run for president in 1884.
treaty of paris (1898)
a peace treaty where Spanish and U.S reps met in Dec. 10, 1898 to end the Span. Ameri. war. signaled the end of Spain's rule in America and marked start of U.S colonial rule in Cuba and the Philippines. The U.S paid Spain $ 20 million for the Philippines
a business management strategy that occurs when a business expands its control over other similar or closely related businesses. Ex: an steel co. would be horizontally integrated if it owned or controlled other steel co's
1862- law passed that dispossessed N.A of land and culture, largest transfer of govt property