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Navigation Acts

The English Navigation Acts (1650-1673) were a series of laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England (after 1707 Great Britain) and its colonies, which started in 1651. Their goal was to force colonial development into lines favorable to England, and stop colonial trade with the Netherlands and France. On the whole, the Acts of Trade and Navigation were obeyed, except for the Molasses Act of 1733, which led to extensive smuggling because no effective means of enforcement was provided until the 1750s. Irritation with stricter enforcement in the 1760s became one source of resentment by merchants in the American colonies against Great Britain, helping cause the American Revolution.
These Acts also formed the basis for British overseas trade for nearly 200 years.

George Grenville

British Prime Minister Architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act arguing that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament.

Sugar Act

The Sugar Act, also known as the American Revenue Act or the American Duties Act, was a revenue-raising act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain on April 5, 1764.The earlier Molasses Act of 1733, which had imposed a tax of six pence per gallon of molasses, had never been effectively collected due to colonial evasion. By reducing the rate by half and increasing measures to enforce the tax, the British hoped that the tax would actually be collected. These incidents increased the colonists' concerns about the intent of the British Parliament and helped the growing movement that became the American Revolution.

Stamp Act

The Stamp Act of 1765 was a direct tax imposed by the British Parliament specifically on the colonies of British America. The act required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London and carrying an embossed revenue stamp. These printed materials were legal documents, magazines, newspapers and many other types of paper used throughout the colonies. Like previous taxes, the stamp tax had to be paid in valid British currency, not in colonial paper money. The purpose of the tax was to help pay for troops stationed in North America after the British victory in the Seven Years' War. The British government felt that the colonies were the primary beneficiaries of this military presence, and should pay at least a portion of the expense.The Stamp Act met with great resistance in the colonies.

Declaratory Act

The Declaratory Act was a declaration by the British Parliament in 1766 which accompanied the repeal of the Stamp Act. It stated that Parliament's authority was the same in America as in Britain and asserted Parliament's authority to make laws binding on the American colonies.

Townshend Acts

A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea.

James Otis

First colonist to raise the issue of taxation without representation and a colonial lawyer who defended (usually for free) colonial merchants who were accused of smuggling. Argued against the writs of assistance and the Stamp Act.

Samuel Adams

American Revolutionary leader, patriot andFounder of the Sons of Liberty. One of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence

John Adams

Lawyer who defended British soldiers in the Boston Massacre trial. He believed in "innocent until proven guilty." In spite of these actions, he supported colonial independence. America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."

Patrick Henry

a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies; inspired colonial patriotism with "Give me liberty or give me death" speech (1736-1799)

John Hancock

A Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence.

Richard Henry Lee

leader of the American Revolution who proposed the resolution calling for independence of the American colonies; Signed the Declaration of Independence (1732-1794)

Thomas Jefferson

3rd President of the United States; Virginian, architect, author, and governor. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina.

Benjamin Franklin

American public official, writer, scientist, printer and founding father. After the success of his Poor Richards Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod and bifocal spectacles.

Methods of revolutionaries

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The Sons Of Liberty

a mix of men around the colonies who formed in response to the Stamp Act; they used pamphlet literature.

Boston Massacre

British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.

The Gaspee

A British ship that got stuck on a sandbar chasing a smuggler. Colonist found the ship, forced the crew off and set the ship on fire.

Boston Tea Party

demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor

Coercive Acts

This series of very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea and forced Bostonian's to shelter soldiers in their own homes.

Suffolk Resolves

The First Continental Congress endorsed Massachusetts' Suffolk Resolves, which declared that the colonies need not obey the 1773 Coercive Acts, since they infringed upon basic liberties.

Lexington and Concord

The first battle of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts. As the British continued to concord the Americans ambushed British, killing 300.

Common Sense

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized King George lll and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain

Washington's crossing of the Delaware

Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware to strike at Trenton and won an important victory

British war strategy

There idea was to divide and conquer, they wanted to separate the New England colonies from the middle and southern colonies

Battle of Saratoga

Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.(1777)

Marquis de Lafayette

French soldier who served under General Washington in the American Revolution and became a general in the Continental Army. (1757-1834)

Valley Forge

Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutrition, Steuben comes and trains troops.

Friedrich von Steuben

Military officer from Germany who trained American soldiers during the American Revolution.

Battle of Yorktown

Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.

Northwest Ordinance

The 1787 Northwest Ordinance defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. He ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. The Northwest Ordinance was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation.

Shays' Rebellion

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Connecticut Compromise

The compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention that established two houses of Congress: the House of Representatives, in which representation is based on a state's share of the U.S. population, and the Senate, in which each state has two representatives.

Anti-Federalists vs. Federalists

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Bill of Rights

A formal statement of the fundamental rights and privileges of the people of the United States. (The first 10 amendments)

Alexander Hamilton: Views and achievements

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Hamilton's views vs. Jefferson's views

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Jay's Treaty

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Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders; it tested the will of the government. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy

Pinckney's Treaty

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War with France

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Alien and Sedition Acts

These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.

Daniel Boone

An American pioneer, guide and explorer (1734-1820)

Election of 1800

Jefferson and Burr each received 73 votes in the Electoral College, so the House of Representatives had to decide the outcome. The House chose Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice President.

ESSAY 1: Discuss the British mercantile system as it related to the American colonies. What was it, why was it important to the British, and what did Americans see as the costs and benefits of the system?

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ESSAY 2: How radical was the American Revolution? Discuss the basic issues at the heart of the conflict, some of the significant issues that it would come to stand for, and other unresolved issues that it would affect over time.

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ESSAY 3: Discuss the structure and reach of the U.S. government under the Articles of
Confederation. What accomplishments were made during the time the Articles were in
effect, and what events exposed the weaknesses in the system outlined in the Articles?

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ESSAY 4: Explain in detail what effect the actions of the Founding Fathers of the U.S. had on slavery. How did they strengthen the institution, how did they weaken it, and what
principles ultimately took precedence over the principle of freedom for all?

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