Chapter 3 sections 1-4 Life Science Concepts

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Element

Any substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler form

Elements found in the body

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorus Sulfur

Made of only one kind of atom

elements

Compounds

Two or more elements chemically combined

Molecule

Smallest unit of a compound

Water (chemical symbol)

(H2O)

(H2O)

Needed for chemical reactions within the cells

Carbon Dioxide (chemical symbol)

(CO2)

Molecule

Smallest unit of a compound

Organic

- contain carbon

Inorganic

- do not contain carbon

Examples of inorganic compounds

Water, salt.

Organic Compounds in Living Things

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

carbohydrates

an energy-rich organic compounds;

Starches and sugars; Fruits, vegetables, potatoes, rice, pasta, bread

examples of carbohydrates

Carbohydrates make up some cell parts

cellulose is found in cell walls of plants

Lipids

Contain even more energy than carbs

lipids give the cell

long-term energy

Main ingredient of cell membranes

lipids

Proteins examples

Meat, eggs, fish, nuts, beans

Proteins Structure

Made up of amino acids :20 kinds that can combine in different combinations

Proteins Function

make up organelles and enzymes

Nucleic Acids

Contain instructions that cells need to do jobs

Two types of Nucleic Acids

DNA and RNA

DNA

Genetic material that carries info about organism Passes on info to offspring. Found in chromatin in nucleus

RNA

In charge of protein production. Found in cytoplasm and in nucleus

Three methods for material movement

Diffusion, Osmosis, Active Transport

Diffusion

Main method of small molecule movement across cell membrane

Movement of small molecule from area of high to low concentration

process known as diffusion

when diffusion occurs

Collisions cause molecules to spread out
it is a form of passive transport- no energy required
Passive transport

Osmosis

Diffusion of water through cell membrane

importance of osmosis

without adequate amount of water cells cannot function properly

Active Transport

Movement of materials using cellular energy

in Active Transport

Transport Proteins "pick up" molecules and carry them in and out of cell

Transport by Engulfing

Cell membrane surrounds a particle and brings it in

Photosynthesis

Process by which cells capture energy from sun and uses it to make food

Autotrophs like plants

use photosynthesis

photosynthesis reaction

6 CO2 + 6 H2O PRODUCES C6H12O6 + 6 O2

photosynthesis explained

Carbon dioxide + Water PRODUCE Glucose + Oxygen THIS PROCES REQUIRES light energy

photosynthesis 2 stages

Capturing the sun's energy and using energy to make food

photosynthesis STAGE 1

Capturing light : mostly occurs in the chloroplasts in leaves

Chlorophyll

main pigment in photosynthesis

Pigment

Responsible for absorbing light

The pigment Chlorophyll uses

captured light as energy for 2nd stage

photosynthesis STAGE 2

Using Energy to make food (sugars) -H2O (via roots) and CO2 (via stomata) go to chloroplasts where chemical reactions result in glucose and oxygen production

In photosynthesis glucose

used by plant for energy

In photosynthesis Oxygen

released back out into atmosphere

Respiration

Process by which cells obtain energy from glucose Aka. Cellular Respiration

The process of respiration

breathing in O2

Respiration has two stages

1st stage- occurs in cytoplasm
2nd stage- occurs in mitochondria

Respiration 1st stage

Molecules of glucose broken down into smaller molecules

Respiration 2nd stage

Small molecules broken down into even smaller molecules

With the breakaging down of small molecules into smaller ones in respiration 2nd stage

Oxygen is needed and LOTS of ENERGY released

Respiration Equation

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 PRODUCE 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ENERGY

Respiration explained

Glucose and Oxygen PRODUCE Carbon Dioxide and Water

Photosynthesis and Respiration

are a CYCLE

Fermentation

Energy-releasing process that does not require oxygen

2 types of fermentation

Alcoholic fermentation (yeasts)
Lactic Acid Fermentation (painful muscles)

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