28) Professor Turner is interested in studying the upper biological limit of motor capacity. Professor Turner will likely study
A) sedentary adults.
B) middle-aged men.
C) well-educated adults.
D) outstanding athletes.
29) Which of the following motor skills will probably peak earliest in life?
A) speed of limb movement
C) upper body strength
30) Which of the following athletes' skills will probably peak latest in life?
A) Rod, a sprinter
B) Reba, a tennis player
C) Rolf, a long-distance runner
D) Rita, a high-jumper
31) The upper biological limit of motor capacity is reached in the
A) last part of middle childhood.
B) first part of adolescence.
C) first part of early adulthood.
D) last part of middle adulthood.
32) The immune response is the combined work of specialized cells that neutralize or destroy _________ in the body.
A) T cells
B) B cells
33) _____________ originate in the bone marrow, mature in the thymus, and attack foreign substances directly.
A) T cells
B) B cells
34) Which of the following best illustrates the relationship between stress and the immune system?
A) Denny gets sick during vacation every year.
B) Benny smokes and drinks, yet rarely gets sick.
C) Jenny has a nagging cold throughout semester finals.
D) Kenny is a yoga master, yet has very bad allergies.
35) The most important cause of the age-related drop in female fertility is
A) a decline in the number and quality of ova.
B) cancer of the ovaries or uterus.
C) abnormal menstrual cycles.
D) a decline in sexual activity.
36) In males, semen volume, sperm motility, and percentage of normal sperm decrease gradually after age
37) __________ show(s) strong and continuous relationships with almost every disease and health indicator.
A) Gender, temperament, and personality
B) Income, education, and occupational status
C) Quality of family and peer relationships
D) Size of family and number of marriages
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38) Which of the following is true about the relationships among SES, education, and health?
A) Economically advantaged individuals sustain better health over most of their adult lives.
B) There is no relationship between educational attainment and health.
C) The health of lower-income individuals steadily improves throughout the lifespan.
D) The health of individuals with limited education steadily improves throughout the lifespan.
39) Which of the following may explain why SES disparities in health and mortality are larger in the United States than in other industrialized nations?
A) Socioeconomic groups are less likely to be segregated by neighborhood in the United States than in other countries.
B) Even high-SES Americans are less likely to seek medical treatment than adults in other countries.
C) Besides the lack of universal health insurance, poverty-stricken U.S. families have lower incomes.
D) The wealthiest Americans have much higher incomes than in other industrialized nations, widening the SES gap.
40) Most Americans eat
A) to maintain the body's functions.
B) the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables.
C) a well-balanced diet.
D) because it is time to do so.
41) Carly, age 24, has a 22 percent greater body weight than she should have, based on her age, sex, and physical build.
A) an obese adult.
B) overweight, but not obese.
C) probably suffering from a metabolic disorder.
D) heavyset, but not overweight.
42) When overweight and obesity rates are combined, ____ percent of Americans are considered to be at an unhealthy weight
43) In the United States,
A) overweight children usually slim down by adolescence or early adulthood.
B) many people show large weight gains between the ages of 25 and 40.
C) rates of overweight and obesity are starting to decline in low-SES adults.
D) more adults are overweight than obese.
) Nadine, an average-weight adult, gained a small amount of weight between the ages of 25 and 50. Nadine should
A) the weight gain is likely caused by a lack of physical activity.
B) she is at high risk for heart disease.
C) this is a normal part of aging, resulting from a drop in basal metabolic rate.
D) the average woman gains between 2 and 5 pounds a year throughout early and middle adulthood.
45) Compared with people of normal weight, obese individuals are more likely to be
A) in dual-earner families.
B) cheerful and optimistic.
C) from middle-SES backgrounds.
D) denied apartment rentals and college loans.
46) Marleen, an obese adult, lost 20 pounds over the course of a year. Within the next two years, she is most likely to
A) lose an additional 20 pounds.
B) lose 5 or 10 more pounds.
C) gain back 5 to 10 pounds.
D) gain back 20 or more pounds.
47) Dwayne, an obese adult, wants to lose weight and keep it off. His weight loss program should include
A) zero fat consumption for the first three months.
B) a daily appetite suppressant.
C) use of social support.
D) zero carbohydrate consumption for the first month.
48) Family and friends can help a dieter by
A) keeping track of what the dieter eats and noting when he or she goes off the diet.
B) pointing out how the extra weight prevents many people from leading an active lifestyle.
C) avoiding discussions of food and limiting social events that revolve around eating.
D) offering encouragement and helping foster the dieter's self-esteem.
49) Which statement about diets and dieters is true?
A) About one-third of Americans on weight-reduction diets are within their normal weight range.
B) Diet programs utilizing group counseling are less effective than programs with individual counseling.
C) Most dieters lose weight and maintain their weight loss for five or more years.
D) Repeat dieters are more likely than weight-loss maintainers to confront problems directly.
50) U.S. national dietary recommendations include reducing dietary fat to _____ percent of total caloric intake.
51) ______________ fat generally comes from meat and dairy products and is solid at room temperature.
D) Partially hydrogenated
52) The main reason for limiting saturated fats is that they are strongly connected with
A) decreased fertility.
B) development of stomach ulcers.
C) cardiovascular disease.
D) production of free radicals.
53) When it comes to dietary fat, the best suggestion is
A) do not consume it.
B) to eat less fat of all kinds.
C) to substitute saturated fat for unsaturated fat.
D) to eat it but exercise immediately afterwards.
54) _____________ leads the globe in overweight and obesity.
B) The United States
55) Between the 1970s and 1990s, the rise in daily caloric intake
A) increased by almost 100 calories.
B) increased by over 500 calories.
C) was enough to add an extra pound every 20 days.
D) was enough to add 5 extra pounds every month.
56) Which of the following is true about the obesity epidemic?
A) A special tax on foods high in calories, sugar, or fat could help reduce obesity on a societal level.
B) In the United States, obesity is responsible for around $150 million in health expenditures per year.
C) The United States mandates prominent posting of the calorie, sugar, and fat content of all foods sold in restaurants.
D) Obesity is responsible for around 30,000 premature deaths per year in the United States alone.
57) About 40 percent of Americans engage in
A) moderate leisure-time physical activity five times a week.
B) light exercise daily, with occasional moderate-to-heavy exercise.
C) no regular brief sessions of even light activity.
D) high-intensity exercise at least three times per week.
58) Regular physical activity is linked to
A) repetitive injuries, particularly in the joints.
B) slight declines T-cell production.
C) reduced incidence of cancer.
D) reduced energy, but improving mood.
59) Which of the following is true about exercise?
A) It strengthens the heart muscle and increases blood pressure.
B) It produces high-density lipoproteins that help remove LDLs.
C) It produces a form of "good cholesterol" known as LDLs.
D) It decreases neural activity in the cerebral cortex.
61) The most commonly abused substances in the United States are
A) cigarettes and alcohol.
B) alcohol and marijuana.
C) cigarettes and over-the-counter medications.
D) alcohol and prescription medications.
64) ______________ is the single most important preventable cause of death in industrialized nations.
B) Cigarette smoking
C) Drug use
65) Charles drinks alcohol often and is unable to limit his alcohol use. Which of the following is probably also true about Charles?
A) His alcoholism probably started in his twenties or thirties.
B) He probably lives in a culture where alcohol is a traditional part of ceremonial activities.
C) He is also a heavy cigarette smoker.
D) He is probably a social drinker who uses alcohol as a leisure activity.
66) Alcoholism is a more common problem in cultures where alcohol is
A) regularly served to and around minors.
B) a traditional part of ceremonial activities.
C) a common part of religious activities.
D) a carefully controlled sign of adulthood.
67) Which of the following statements about alcohol use in adulthood is true?
A) Alcohol induces anxiety at first but relieves stress over time.
B) About half of police activities in large cities involve alcohol-related offenses.
C) Almost 25 percent of fatal car crashes in the U.S. involve alcohol.
D) The most effective prevention strategy for reducing alcohol abuse is to raise the minimum drinking age to 25.
68) The most successful treatment for alcoholism
A) is medication that makes the individual sick if he or she consumes alcohol.
B) combines antidepressants with individual therapy.
C) combines counseling, group support, and aversion therapy.
D) is short-term incarceration or hospitalization.
82) The majority of rape victims are __________, and the abusers are __________.
A) over age 30; under age 30
B) under age 30; men they know well
C) unwilling to prosecute their attacker; strangers to the victim
D) over age 20; sober at the time of the attack
83) Which of the following is an accurate statement about sexual coercion?
A) Less than 20 percent of U.S. women have experienced sexual aggression.
B) Men who engage in sexual assault are usually from low-SES backgrounds.
C) People of all SES and ethnic groups are offenders and victims.
D) Men who engage in sexual assault tend to believe in nontraditional gender roles.
84) Which of the following is true about female-initiated coercive sexual behavior against men?
A) About 3 to 5 percent of U.S. men have experienced female-initiated coercive sexual behavior.
B) Most male victims indicate that women who committed these acts used actual or threatened force.
C) Victims report that women who committed these acts often threatened to end a relationship unless the victim complied.
D) Due to increasing public awareness, nearly 80 percent of men who experience female-initiated sexual aggression report the crime to authorities.
85) Hayley recently took a job as a rape counselor. She should know that a woman who _________ is more likely to blame
A) did not know her attacker
B) has a history of sexual abuse
C) was not physically injured
D) is over the age of 25
86) Which of the following is true about rape prevention and treatment?
A) Practically no services are available for victimized men, who are often too embarrassed to come forward.
B) The trauma induced by rape is typically so severe that therapy is an ineffective intervention.
C) In the United States, treatment is mandated for men and women who sexually assault their partners.
D) Safety planning interventions are not needed if the abuser is no longer present in the victim's life.
89) A strong cardiovascular response, interference with immune system functioning, and reduced digestive activity are all symptoms of
C) psychological stress.
D) genetically programmed aging.
90) Compared with _________ adults, ________ adults show a stronger cardiovascular response to stress.
A) female; male
B) higher-SES; low-SES
C) lower-SES; high-SES
D) male; female
91) ________ adults are better than _________ adults at coping with stress.
A) Middle-aged; young
B) Young; middle-aged
C) Lower-SES; high-SES
D) Male; female
105) _________________ is one of the most consistent predictors of cognitive change in students during the college years.
A) Attendance at a four-year institution
B) Attendance at a public institution
C) Residence hall living
D) Open enrollment
106) Which student is most at risk for dropping out of college?
A) a sophomore at a large state university
B) a freshman a highly selective school
C) a sophomore who moves off-campus
D) a freshman at a school with open enrollment
107) Colleges that __________ have a higher percentage of dropouts.
A) do little to help high-risk students
B) have high admissions requirements
C) place great value on grade point average
D) place students in developmental courses
108) Which of the following early adolescents is most likely to be enrolled in college at age 20?
A) Vada, whose parents use authoritarian child rearing
B) Val, whose parents refuse to let him drop out of a challenging chemistry class
C) Vivian, whose parents emphasize grades over effort
D) Viktor, whose parents are more supportive of his athletic than academic successes
115) Young people's vocational aspirations correlate strongly with their
A) parents' jobs.
B) childhood dreams.
C) ethnic identity.
D) friends' aspirations.
116) Francine is preparing to become an oncologist. Which of the following is most likely to have influenced her vocational choice?
A) being a volunteer in a tutoring program for low-achieving students
B) having a close relationship with her high school science teacher
C) visiting the local hospital as part of a class field trip
D) watching a telethon that raised money for cancer research