Ch. 6 Chemistry of Life

44 terms by Regan95

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Element

A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler chemical substances

Atom

Atom The smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of that element

Nucleus

The center of an element

Isotope

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

Compound

A substance composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined,

Covalent Bond

When two atoms share e- such as H sharing with O in water what is name of the bond?,

Ionic Bond

Attractive force between two ions of opposite charge

Mixture

A combination of substances in which the individual compoenets retain their own properties,

pH

The measure of how acidic or basic a solution is

Acid

Any substance that forms hydrogen ions H+ in water

Base

Any substance that forms hydroxide ions OH- in water

Ion

A charged particle

Ionic Bond

The chemical bond between a metal and non-metal

Covalent Bond

Covalent Bond The chemical bond between a non-metal and non-metal

Halogen Group

The most reactive non-metals.

Alkali

The most reactive metals

Triple Bound

A covalent bond in which 3 pairs of electrons are shared

Double Bond

A covalent bond in which 2 pairs of electrons are shared.

1 + charge

Any elements in group 1

2 + charge

Any elements in group 2

Noble Gases

Group 8 elements that are non-reactive

Valence Electrons

Electrons in the outer energy level

Acid

Any substance that releases hydrogen ions when in water

Base

Any substance that releases OH- hydroxide ions when in water

Strong Base

Closer to 14 on the pH scale

Acid

Sour taste

Base

Bitter and Slippery

Molecule

The base unit of substance such as H2O

Metabolism

All the chemical reactions within an organism

Solution

e distributed evenly in another substance (solvent).

Polar Molecule

A molecule with an uneven distribution of charge

Hydrogen Bond

A intermolecular interaction formed between a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom (such as oxygen or nitrogen)

Diffusion

The net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

Dynamic Equilibrium

Continuous movement but no overall change in concentration.

Isomer

Compounds that have the same simple formula but different three dimensional structures. Such as fructose and glucose

Polymer

A large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together

Carbohydrate

An organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

Lipid

Organic compounds that have a large proportion of C-H bonds and less oxygen than carbs.,

Protein

A large complex polymer conposed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and usually sulfur

Amino Acid

The basic building blocks of proteins

Peptide Bond

The covalent bond formed between the amino acids.

Enzyme

A protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction

Nucleic Acid

A complex macromolecule that stores cellular information in the form of a code.

Nucleotide

Subunits that make up nucleic acids

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