Myers Exploring Psychology Chapter 1

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33 terms · keywords from chapter 1 of Myers 6th edition

empiricism

the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.

structuralism

an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

functionalism

a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.

nature-nurture issue

the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors

basic research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

clinical psychology

a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.

psychiatry

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)

psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes

critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.

theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations

hypothesis

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

operational definition

a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures

replication

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them

population

all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

naturalistic observation

Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

correlation coefficient

A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other

illusory correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists

experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.

placebo

an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent

double-blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug evaluation studies.

placebo effect

Any effect on behavior caused by a placebo

experimental condition

the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

control condition

the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

random assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.

independent variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

dependent variable

The experimental factor - in psychology, the behavior or mental process - that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

SQ3R

a study method incorporating five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review.

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