AP Psychology: Chapter 14

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Personality

The pattern of psychological and behavioral characteristics by which a person can be compared and contrasted to others.

Psychodynamic Approach

Freud's view that personality is based on the interplay of unconscious mental processes.

Social-Cognitive Approach

The roles of learning and cognition in shaping human behavior.

Humanistic Approach

Emphasis on personality as a reflection of growth and the search for meaning in life.

Id

The unconscious portion of personality that contains basic impulses and urges.

Libido

The psychic energy contained in the id.

Pleasure Principle

The id's operating principle, which guides people towards whatever feels good.

Ego

The part of the personality that mediates conflicts between and among the demands of the id, the superego, and the real world.

Reality Principle

The operating principle of the ego that creates compromises between the id's demands and those of the real world.

Superego

The component of personality that tells people what they should and should not do.

Defense Mechanisms

Psychological responses that help protect a person from anxiety and guilt.

Oral Stage

The first of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, in which the mouth is the center of pleasure and conflict.

Anal Stage

The second of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, usually occurring during the second year of life, in which the focus of pleasure and conflict shifts from the mouth to the anus.

Phallic Stage

The third of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, in which the focus of pleasure and conflict shifts to the genital area.

Oedipus Complex

A pattern described by Freud in which a boy has sexual desire for his mother and wants to eliminate his father's competition for her attention.

Electra Complex

A pattern described by Freud in which a girl develops an attachment to her father and competes with her mother for his attention.

Latency Period

The fourth of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, in which sexual impulses lie dormant.

Genital Stage

The last of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, which begins during adolescence, when sexual impulses appear at the conscious level.

Trait Approach

A perspective in which personality is seen as a combination of characteristics that people display over time and across situations.

Big-Five Model

Five trait dimensions found in many factor-analytic studies of personality: Neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

Social-Cognitive Approach

An approach in which personality is seen as the patterns of thinking and behavior that a person learns.

Functional Analysis

Analyzing behavior by studying what responses occur under what conditions of operant reward and punishment.

Self-Efficacy

According to Bandura, learned expectations about the probability of success in given situations.

Actualizing Tendancy

According to Rogers, an innate inclination toward growth that motivates all people.

Self-Concept

The way one thinks of oneself.

Conditions of Worth

According to Rogers, the feelings an individual experiences when the person, instead of the person's behavior, is evaluated.

Deficiency Orientation

According to Maslow, a preoccupation with perceived needs for things a person does not have.

Growth Orientation

According to Maslow, a tendency to draw satisfaction from what is available in life, rather than to focus on what is missing.

Thanatos

Death instincts.

Psychodynamic Conflicts

Inner clashes among the three personality components.

Collective Unconscious

Contains the memories we have inherited from our human and non-human ancestors.

Introversion

A tendency to reflect on one's own experiences.

Extraversion

A tendency to focus on the social world.

Womb Envy

Horney's theory that all men are jealous of a woman's ability to have a child.

Behavioral Inhibition System

Brain regions that affect sensitivity to potential punishment and the motivation to being punished.

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