AP US History, Chapter 8

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Second Bank of the United States

national bank organized in 1816; closely modeled after the first Bank of the United States, it held federal tax receipts and regulated the amount of money circulating in the economy. The Bank proved to be very unpopular among western land speculators and farmers, especially after the Panic of 1819

Francis Cabot Lowell

Boston merchant who had an idea to combine spinning and weaving under one roof. He formed the Boston Associates. They built a textile mill in Massachusetts. Had all machines needed to turn raw cotton into cloth

National Road

a federally funded road begun in 1811 and by 1838 extending from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois

John Jacob Astor

American fur trader and financier, he founded the fur-trading post of Astoria and the American fur company

American Fur Company

Astor's fur company, one of the biggest fur businesses

Mountain Men

men hired by eastern companies to trap animals for fur in the Rocky Mountains and other western regions of the US

Andrew and William Ashley/Rocky Mountain Fur Company

In 1822, they founded the Rocky Mountain Fur Company and recruited white trappers to move permanently into the Rockies. They dispatched supplies annually to their trappers in exchange for furs and skins.

James Monroe

5th president, begins expansionism including Florida and Missouri, as well as reigning over the Era of Good Feelings

Era of Good Feelings

This phrase was coined by a Boston newspaper that was commonly associated with the administration of James Monroe. It represented a time of a sense of nationalism in the country, as well as a sober executive.

The Seminole War

Andrew Jackson commanded Calhoun to do whatever it took in order to stop the Seminole Indians raids on Americans. Calhoun then invaded the Spanish forts St. Marks and Pensacola. This act became known as the Seminole War.

Adams-Onis Treaty

Gave full rights of the territory of Florida to the United States

Wildcat bank

an unregulated, speculative bank that issues notes without sufficient capital to back them

Panic of 1819

This was the first widespread economic crisis in the United States which brought deflation, depression, backrushes, bank failures, unemployment and soup kitchens. This set back nationalism to more sectionalism and hurt the poorer class, which gave way to Jacksonian Democracy.

Missouri Compromise

Compromise worked out by Henry Clay in 1820: slavery would be prohibited in the Louisiana territory north of 36o30'; Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state, Maine would enter the Union as a free state.

Virginia Dynasty

"dynasty" comprised of the four of the first five presidents (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe), all of whom Virginian plantation owners

Tallmadge Amendment

(JMon) , This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.

Fletcher vs. Peck

The Court declared a Georgia state law unconstitutional
(1810)

Yazoo Land Companies

Georgia lands couldn't be repealed as by the ruling of Fletcher vs. Peck (1810)

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