Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

alienation

Withdrawal or separation of people or their affections from an object or position of former attachment.

anorexia nervosa

An emotional disorder in which the person loses the ability to regulate eating behavior; the person is obsessed with a fear of being overweight and avoids food or becomes nauseated after eating.

binge drinking

Quickly consuming five or more drinks in a row.

bulimia

A habitual disturbance in eating behavior, mostly affecting young women of normal weight, which is characterized by frequent episodes of grossly excessive food intake followed by self-induced vomiting to prevent weight gain.

clique

A small friendship group of 5 to 10 people.

common bond

Interpersonal ties that provide feelings of acceptance and emotional support.

common identity

Shared roles involving pressure to comply with group expectations.

crowd

A large group that is usually recognized by a few predominant characteristics, such as the 'preppies,' the 'jocks,' or the 'druggies.'

decentering

Gaining some objectivity over one's own point of view; reducing the dominance of one's subjective perspective in the interpretation of events.

dependent variable

A factor that is defined by a participant's responses or reactions and that may or may not be affected by the experimenter's manipulation of the independent variable.

depressed mood

Refers to feelings of sadness, a loss of hope, a sense of being overwhelmed by the demands of the world, and general unhappiness.

depression

A state of feeling sad, often accompanied by feelings of low personal worth and withdrawal from relations with others.

depressive syndrome

This term refers to a constellation of behaviors and emotions that occur together. The syndrome usually includes complaints about feeling depressed, anxious, fearful, worried, guilty, and worthless.

disclosure

Sharing information with others about whether one is gay, lesbian, or bisexual.

dissociation

A sense of separateness or withdrawal from others; an inability to experience the bond of mutual commitment.

ethnic-group identity

Knowing that one is a member of a certain ethnic group; recognizing that aspects of one's thoughts, feelings, and actions are influenced by one's ethnic membership; and taking the ethnic group's values, outlook, and goals into account when making life choices.

executive functioning

Includes several cognitive capacities, including the ability to reject irrelevant information, formulate complex hypothetical arguments, organize an approach to a complex task, and follow a sequence of steps to task completion. Often associated with advances in the development of the prefrontal cortex.

formal operations

Complex cognitive capacities, such as reasoning, hypothesis generation, and hypothesis testing.

group identity

The positive pole of the psychosocial crisis of early adolescence, in which the person finds membership in and value convergence with a peer group.

hypothesis

A tentative proposition that can provide a basis for further inquiry.

identity confusion

The negative pole of the psychosocial crisis of later adolescence, in which a person is unable to integrate various roles or make commitments.

imaginary audience

The preoccupation with what you believe other people are thinking about you.

individual identity

The commitment to a personal integration of values, goals, and abilities that occurs as personal choices are made in response to anticipated or actual environmental demands at the end of adolescence.

major depressive disorder

A disorder in which a person will have experienced five or more of the following symptoms for at least 2 weeks: depressed mood or irritable mood most of the day; decreased interest in pleasurable activities; changes in weight, or perhaps failure to make necessary weight gains in adolescence; sleep problems; psychomotor agitation or retardation; fatigue or loss of energy; feelings of worthlessness or abnormal amounts of guilt; reduced concentration and decision-making ability; and repeated suicidal ideation, attempts, or plans of suicide.

menarche

The beginning of regular menstrual periods.

peer pressure

Expectations to conform and commit to the norms of one's peer group.

personal fable

An intense investment in one's own thoughts and feelings and a belief that these thoughts are unique.

puberty

The period of physical development at the onset of adolescence when the reproductive system matures.

reference group

A group with which an individual identifies and whose values the individual accepts as guiding principles.

reputational identity

Identity characteristics assigned to someone by those in their environment (such as a school) that is derived from their being associated with a crowd in the setting.

secondary sex characteristics

The physical characteristics other than genitals that indicate sexual maturity, such as body hair, breasts, and deepened voice.

secular growth trend

A tendency, observed since approximately 1900, for more rapid physical maturation from one generation to the next, probably as a result of favorable nutrition, increased mobility, and greater protection from childhood diseases.

selection forces

Adolescents seek out friends who will support their involvement with drugs as part of a more general pattern of deviance or thrill seeking

self labeling

Refers to applying a label such as gay, lesbian, or bisexual to oneself. Compare disclosure.

status offense

Behavior that is criminalized for minors, such as running away or truancy, which would not be against the law for adults.

Which of the following occurs during puberty?

c. maturation of the reproductive system

During early adolescence, there is ________ in the rate and sequence of development.

c. variability

Cross-national research demonstrates a strong association between body dissatisfaction and:

a. depression.

What is a common consequence of early maturation for girls?

b. higher levels of conflict with parents

According to the text, egocentrism may best be described as:

a. a limited perspective a child displays at the beginning of each new phase of cognitive development.

The kind of reasoning associated with diplomacy, psychotherapy, and spiritual leadership is called:

c. postformal reasoning.

Which of the following is an eating disorder that is characterized by fear of gaining weight and refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight?

c. anorexia

Which of the following is a precipitating event that might lead to adolescent suicide?

a. rejection by a romantic partner
b. a humiliating experience
c. all of these
d. a notable failure

Populars, gangs, skateboarders, and jocks are examples of:

b. peer crowds.

In what way might experiences of alienation be important for the formation of group and individual identity?

a. All of these.
b. They help the young person see the self against the backdrop of the group.
c. They help teens appreciate how good social acceptance feels.
d. The discomfort of not fitting in helps the young person recognize the distinctiveness of his or her point of view.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set