cancer characterized by an increase in abnormal white blood cells
over production of red blood cells
the sudden closure of a blood vessel by a traveling blood clot, or embolus
Where and when do blood cells form?
Hematopoiesis....occurs in red bone marrow of axial skeleton, girdles and proximal epiphyses of humerus and femor.
How do platlets work to plug defects?
Vascular spasm, platlet plug, coagulation
Atrial Fibrillation: An abnormality in the heart rhythm, (i.e. irregular heartbeat) which can cause clots to form in the walls of the atria (heart).
Mechanical Heart Valves: Surgical replacement of faulty heart valves with mechanical valves. The body can react to the "foreign" mechanical valve and start the clotting process.
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction): Heart muscle tissue damaged from a heart attack can cause clots to form within the heart.
Unstable Angina: Chest discomfort and spasms due to inadequate supplies of oxygen to the heart caused by a narrowing of the coronary arteries. These spasms help form unwanted blood clots.
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A deep vein within the muscle of the thigh, leg or pelvis that has formed a clot.
Pulmonary Embolism: A clot that breaks off from the deep veins of the muscle and travels to the arteries of the lungs. This is referred to as an embolus.
Acute Ischemic Stroke: A clot originating in another part of the body travels to the brain, causing a sudden loss of blood supply.
What organ regulates RBC production, How?
Hormones that are released by the kidneys......The production of erythrocytes by the red bone marrow is stimulated by the hormone erythropoetin produced by the kidneys.
Kill parasitic worms;complex role in alergy and asthma
Release histamine and other mediators of inflammation; contain heparin
Mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies
Seal small tears in blood vessels, instumetal in blood clotting.
white blood cell that protects the body from invasion of harmful substances
abnormally low WBC count
a normocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by the failure of bone marrow to produce red blood cells
(Vit. B12), progressive anemia that results from a lack of intrinsic factor essential for the absorption of vitamin B12
A, B, O, AB, A, B, AB and O. Type O is the universal donor and AB blood is known as the universal recipient.
noise that results from vibrations due to closure of atrioventricular valves( first heart sound) or pulmonary and aortic valves (second heart sound)....Heard as LUB-DUB
Parts of an EKG
P-wave....depolarization of SA node
QRS complex.....Ventricular depolarization
pain in the heart region caused by lack of oxygen
The normal electrical conduction of the heart allows electrical propagation to be transmitted from the Sinoatrial Node through both atria and forward to the Atrioventricular Node. Normal/baseline physiology allows further propagation from the AV node to the Ventricle or Purkinje Fibers and respective bundle branches and subdivisions/fascicles. Both the SA and AV nodes stimulate the Myocardium. Time ordered stimulation of the myocardium allows efficient contraction of all four chambers of the heart, thereby allowing selective blood perfusion through both the lungs and systemic circulation.
Left and Right Ventricals of the hear have Equal Volumes?
Functions of the Corinary arteries
The function of the coronary arteries is to transport oxygenated blood to the heart--------not to other parts of the body !!
Foramen Ovale What is it and what does it do?
The foramen ovale is a small hole located in the atrial septum that is used during fetal circulation to speed up the travel of blood through the heart. When in the womb,a baby does not use it's own lungs for oxygen-rich blood, it relies on the mother to provide oxygen rich blood from the placenta through the umbilical cord to the fetus. Therefore, blood can travel from the veins to the right side of the baby's heart and cross to the left side of the heart through the foramen ovale and skip the trip to the baby's lungs.
The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.
External Iliac Arteries
The external iliac artery is a large artery in the pelvic region that carries blood to the lower limb.
Supiorior and inferior Vena Cava
Circulation is Backward
Functions of pulmonary trunk
1. The pulmonary trunk is the "pipe" that your blood goes through to get from the right side of the heart to the lungs to get oxygenated.
2. Delivers deoxygenated blood into the lungs
3. An arterial trunk with origin from the right ventricle of the heart, and dividing into the right and left pulmonary arteries, which enter the corresponding lungs and branch with the bronchi.
Functions of External Jugular
one (external jugular vein) collecting blood from the superficial parts of the head or one (internal jugular vein) collecting blood from within the skull.
Which artery are you listening to when you take BP?
Where is the femoral Artery
Capilaries/Blood flow how is it regulated
Only function when needed
Hepatic Portal system
toward the heart
What does each layer of blood vessals do?
Tunica Intima.....Endothemlium lines the lumen of all vessels
Tunica Media...Control vasoconstriction and vasodiltion of vessels
Tunica externa....collagen fibers protect and reinforce; larger vessels contain vasa vasorum to nourish the external layer
Things that do not effect BP?
Nero and endocrine
Pulse is the same everywhere?
Preasure can be different in the Arteries?
Right Ventical is Thin and used for polmunary circulation
Left Ventrical is Thick and used for whole body cirulation