With _______ Binding surface receptors on phagocyte bind to surface molecules on pathogen.
With _______ Binding the surface receptors on phagocyte bind to serum/tissue-derived molecules attached to surface of pathogen known as OPSONIZATION
- _______ Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns
With Direct Binding PAMP _______ molecules common (not unique) to many groups of microbes but not host cells
Often PAMPs are essential to microbial _______ thus they cannot be discarded by microbe
With Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in gram-negative bacteria, teichoic acids in gram-positive bacteria both are components of _______ cell walls
Serum/tissue-derived molecules (_______) are molecules that bind to the pathogen surface
phagocyte binds to the opsonin and _______ the pathogen
Indirect Binding _______ Are Soluble molecules That Bind to surface of microbe And Enhance phagocytosis Also Inhibit invasiveness Examples include: Collectins (MBL and surfactant proteins), ficolins, pentraxins (CRP), serum amyloid P, complement proteins, antibodies
_______ protein A binds to the hemagglutinin (HA) of viral coat and inhibits invasiveness - HA is required for the virus to bind to the cell surface
Receptors for _______ - Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs)
Receptors for _______ - for example, complement receptors (CR1, etc.)
_______ express more opsonic receptors than PAMP receptors
_______ express lots of both PAMPs and opsonins receptors
Receptors on _______ Also clear debris and apoptotic cells with scavenger receptors
Receptors for _______: Toll-like receptors (TLR1-11), Mannose receptors
Receptors for _______: Complement receptors - receptors for C3 cleavage products as well as other complement components from all three pathways, Fc receptors
Receptors Conduct _______ that activate antimicrobial and proinflammatory functions of the cells in which they are expressed
A function of _______ is to Facilitate phagocytosis
Receptors are located on the Cell _______ for binding to extracellular pathogens
Receptors are located on Intracellular _______ (ER) and are important for binding to viral components
Receptors are located within the _______ where they are important for binding to viruses that have entered the cell and for bacteria that have escaped the phagosome
Non-_______ phagocytosis can lead to intracellular invasion: Microbes can avoid phagosome maturation, Inhibit fusion with lysosome and acidification, Promote invasion by rapid recruitment of lysosomes.
Once inside the _______ The organism can replicate, or Can escape into the cytosol of membrane dissolution
Opsonization targets the microbe to the _______.
Two methods of _______ are the; Zipper mechanism and the Trigger and ruffle mechanism (spacious)
Following initial interaction with pathogens, phagocytes _______ numerous molecules including: Eicosanoids, Cytokines, and Enzymes, esp. lysozyme
The _______ of secreted molecules is to: Promote inflammatory response, Recruit other cells, Regulate their activities, Induce adhesion, and to release Inhibitory molecules (to suppress immune response).
Cytotoxic products and proteases, such as elastase, collagenase, and urokinase are able to induce tissue _______ and contribute to destructive chronic inflammation
Eicosanoids and other procoagulants can induce vascular _______ and tissue damage
Following phagocytosis, _______ are subjected to a variety of killing mechanisms which are Enhanced in activated macrophages
Following lysosome _______ the transient rise in pH of phagolysosome, followed by a fall - all occurs within first 10-15 minutes (The acidic pH may contribute to killing) and The subsequent killing mechanisms are more effective at specific pH levels.
The production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in activated macrophages occurs immediately _______ internalization
Cationic _______ are most active during the early alkaline phase, and Many digestive lysosomal enzymes are more active in the later acidic phase
_______ Acts directly on the bacterial cell wall proteoglycans, present especially in the exposed cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria.
_______ are Small peptides (30-33 aa) found in neutrophil granules that Form ion-permeable channels in lipid bilayers, and Are able to kill a range of pathogens - S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, Cryptococcus neoformans, and enveloped viruses (herpes simplex).
A Respiratory _______ involves the Generation of hydrogen peroxide and other metabolites, such as nitric oxide (NO) and Generation of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species which leads to Lipid peroxidation and Protein oxidation as well as DNA and RNA oxidation.