Sentence Corrections sec. 3

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Refers to people & things; Answer's the questions "What?" or "Who?"

Nouns & Pronouns

Noun -

word that is used to name a person, place, thing, quality or action and can function as the subject or object of a verb. Or as the object of a proposition

Pronoun -

a word that takes the place of a noun(its antecedent or referent- meaning refers back to subject/noun)
ex. The librarian found the book & forwarded 'IT'. - 'IT' referring back to the book

What corrects part of speech to modify a word depends on the part of speech of the word that is being modified?

Modifiers

Adjective -

a word that modifies a noun or pronoun. Adjectives are distinguished chiefly by their suffixes such as: "-able", "-ous", "-er", "-as" or by their positions directly preceding a noun or noun phrase.
Answers: Question's "Which?" or "What kind?"
*Remember, modifying noun/pronoun is SUBJECT or OBJECT of the preposition or verb

Adverb -

a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or an entire clause.
-Identified by the suffix "-ly"
Answers: Question's "How?" "When?" "Where?" "Why" or "How Much"

A word that expresses action, existence, or occurrence?

Verb
*Action or state of being (to be)

Types of connectors?

Prepositions
Conjunctions

A word, such as "in" or "to", or a group of words such as "in regard to" that is placed before a noun or pronoun and indicates a grammatical relation to another word in the sentence is a ?

Prepostion

Prepositional Phrases typically function as...

adjectives or adverbs
*the preposition establishes the relation of the prepositional phrase to the rest of the sentence.
ex. -"Proper technique and practice are both important FOR GMAT preparation

Conjunction is

a word that links words, phrases or clauses
ex. "Proper technique AND practice are both important for GMAT preparation."

Sentence Correction Error's fall into 1 of 8 categories: Which are

V.A.M.P.I.R.E.S
1) Verb form errors
2) Agreement between subject & verb
3) Modifiers
4) Pronoun
5) Idioms

VAMPIRES cont.

6) Rudimentary Sentence
7) Equivalent Elements
8) Second -tier

Verb form Error's occur when

a verb with the wrong tense, voice, mood is used.
*Tense error's are most common

Errors can take form of when

1) All tenses don't agree
2) Tenses should follow a logical sequence of events; meaning one action should occur well before another, or well after. Tenses should match timeline (so when sequential events occur ---> are they in proper order)

Clues error might be a Verb form Error -

- Several verbs in one sentence
- Answer choices provide different versions of a particular verb

Verb tenses can take a -

1) Past
2) Present
3) Future
*And each time frame has a Perfect, Continuous, & Perfect continuous form

________ is used to indicate an event that happened before an event in simple tense.

Perfect Tense
GMAT is testing difference between past simple & past perfect

Past Perfect Ex. Jo discovered that Leslie had lied to her -

- Jo discovered is more recent
- Leslie Lied is furthest in the past

Note: Never use the past perfect (I had studied) when -

talking simply about a single even in the past;
Always use the past simple (*I studied)

Note: Use past simple with two events that -

happened at the same time

"I will have studied" is an example of?

Future Perfect
- Describes a future event that will come before another event

"I have studied" is an example of?

Present Perfect
- Simply describes an event that happened before the present( a present event doesn't have to be specified)

Continuous Tenses are used to -

indicate actions that are, were, or will be ongoing. Often in comparison with another discrete even indicated by the simple form.

"I had studied when the game started." is an example of ?

Past Perfect tense
- I had studied

Perfect Continuous Tenses describe -?

actions that occurred before another event "&" that are ongoing.

"I was studying in the library when the fire alarm sounded." is an ex. of?

Past Continuous Tense

"By the end of the month, I will have been studying for 12 weeks." is an example of ?

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

"I have studied" is an example of?

Present Perfect

"I studied" is an example of?

Past Tense

"I was studying" is an example of?

Past Continuous Tense

"I will have studied by the time the games starts" is an example of?

Future Perfect

"I will be studying" is an example of?

Future Continuous Tense

"I had been studying" is an example of?

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

I study

Present Tense

I will study

Future Tense

"I am studying"

Present Continuous

"I have been studying all day before the game"

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Agreement of subject/verb error's
- Consist of Plural subjects needing plural verbs & Singular subjects needing singular verbs.

*GMAT will try & obscure proper agreement by separating subject & verb with a bunch of other verbiage

Look for subject/verb placement being obscured after -

A very long modifying phrase

*Be Aware: Of singular nouns appearing plural

Testing hing:
Try and cover up the text between subject & verb, or remove entirely to make it easier to check if the two agree
- Also will need to match up subject & verb of each & every clause

Special cases:

1) Either/Or , Neither/Nor pairs
2) Tricky nouns (like CROWD(singular))

Clues that error may be Subject/Verb agreement type

1) A subject followed by a "prepositional phrase"
2) A subject followed by any long modifying phrase
3) A verb before the subject (inverted sentence)
4) Compound subjects or predicates
*5) Us of Either/Or Neither/Nor --> verb should agree with whatever follows "NOR"

Additional clues to subject/verb agreement errors

6) A compound or complex sentence (sentence with multiple clauses)
7) A noun (such as crowd) appears plural, but in face singular

Strategy in dealing with Agreement type Error's

- Focus on which noun is actual subject of the sentence, or which words are actionable (or even necessary)
- Ignore descriptive terms - adjectives, adverbs, modifying phrases that are not part of a Modifier error
- Identify which clauses of a sentence can similarly be ignored as being irrelevant to underlined portion of sentence

Much of this type of strategy is implementing slash & burn on

adjectives
adverbs
modifiers irrelevant to underlined portion
clauses irrelevant to underlined portion - Most notably:
*Clauses which introduce subordinate clauses

Subordinate Clauses -

denoted by a word such as "that" or "because", introducing a complete thought partway through a sentence
ex. "A study finds that "there are now one mobile phone for every two people."

ex. of slash & burn:
A recent research study of worldwide cellular penetration finds that there are now one mobile phone for every two people, more than twice as many than there were in 2005

1st - rid of adjectives describing
"recent" "research" "worldwide" "mobile"
And - adverbs: "Now"

2nd - remove descriptive phrase detailing type of study ?

"of cellular penetration"

3rd - ignore descriptive term about time frame

"2005"

4th - Can rid part that precedes subordinate clause

"A study finds that..."

5th - rid of modifiers

"for every two people" "more than twice as many than there were"

So, "There are one phone" error is?

are = should = is

Modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that -

limits or describes another word or word group.

Modifier errors occur -

when the modifier does not modify what it is supposed to modify.

Modifier ex. "Leaving her home to go to work, the traffic surprised Lissette." Corrected:

Leaving her home to go to work, Lissette was surprised by the traffic.

ex. "The rug usually covered the floor, which would be back from the dry cleaners today." Corrected:

"The rug, which would be back from the dry cleaners today, usually covered the floor."

these examples show modifiers acting as

adjectives

Key: If a modifier acts as an adjective, check to see if the modifying phrase appears as close as possible to what it modifies

..

Modifying Error clue: Check -

If modifying phrase starts or completes a sentence

What are the two categories of pronoun errors?

1) Reference
2) Agreement

Reference Pronoun Errors occur when

The pronoun doesn't clearly refer to a specific noun.
- It(the pronoun/referent) should refer to its specific noun/antecedent
- Must also agree in number with their antecedents; either singular or plural

ex. of Reference Pronoun Error
"Green and Holmes played, and he scored a touchdown." Corrected?

Correct:
Green and Holmes played, and Holmes scored a touchdown

Agreement Pronoun Errors occur when

The pronoun doesn't clearly agree in number with their antecedents

ex. of Agreement Pronoun Error
"The average mother expects unconditional love from her child, and they are rarely disappointed."

Correct:
The average mother expects unconditional love from her child, and she is rarely disappointed.

Note: When you see a pronoun underlined, ask two questions:

1) Does the pronoun clearly refer to a specific noun?
2) Does the pronoun agree in number with that noun?

Advanced Correction problems may use wrong case(subject/object) for a pronoun -

Management will give the award to whomever produces the best prototype. ---> whomever should be whoever
- Note: "Whoever" is subject of "produces" and the entire clause("whoever produces the best prototype") is object of preposition "to"

Clue to Pronoun errors present is use of a pronoun

*Anytime a sentence uses a pronoun, verify that the antecedents(noun pronoun is referring to) is clear, and that the pronoun agrees with its antecedents in number

Common Singular Subject Pronouns

I, You, He, She, It
- Who, Which, That

Common Singular Object Pronouns

Me, You, Him, Her, It
- Whom, Which, That

Common Singular Possessive Pronouns

My, Your, His, Her, Its
- Whose, Of Which

Common Plural Subject Pronouns

We, You, They
- Who, Which, That

Common Plural Object Pronouns

Us, You, Them
- Whom, Which, That

Common Plural Possessive Pronouns

Our, Your, Their
- Whose, Of Which

Idiom's are -

an accepted style of speech; the established way to say something

Idiomatic errors are -

when the sentence violates the established way to say something

Idiomatic error clue -

When sentence doesn't look or sound right, but also doesn't violate any other rule.

*"X differs from Y" vs. "X differs than Y"

..

Rudimentary Sentence Errors occur when -

a sentence lacks the basic structure of subject-predicate; or when these basic structures are connected improperly
-Often lead to sentence fragments, run-on sentences, or improperly connected clauses

*Key to Rudimentary Sentence Error's is to check whether -

all clauses have a subject and a predicate, and are properly connected with each other using semi-colons or conjunctions

3 clues in identifying Rudimentary Sentence Errors are:

1) Run-on or sentence fragments
2) Multiple clauses that are not properly integrated with each other
3) In encountering long sentences with multiple clauses, check the CONNECTORS between the clauses before dealing with the grammar

* Not only.....(requires what to accompany it)...

But also

Name some transition terms that are necessary when a sentence's clauses seem to say different things - (called juxtaposition)

"Yet", "But", "Although"

A verb can be applied to more than one noun in a sentence, but requires a

connector like or, and
- the man could lift a truck or *1000 lbs

Equivalent elements such as, a series of actions, correlated pairs, or sentences that make comparisons must -

Be parallel.
-They should be constructed in the same grammatical form
*Meaning; If you are "-ing" something, then the other something must also be "-ing" - Can't imitate & duplicating at same time

*Key to checking/solving Equivalent Elements is to:

Cover up the text between related phrases or clauses to make it easier to check if the related elements have parallel structure

A series of related phrases or clauses (ex. reading, practicing, and correcting...) is an example of

A need for parallel grammatical form

A compound predicate is -

When multiple verbs share the same subject.
- When this occurs all the verbs must share same form

Either/Or & Not only/ but also are examples of?

Correlative conjunctions

A comparison equivalence error occurs when?

The sentence compares dissimilar things
*Commonly tested b/c its hard to spot equivalence error & easy-to-construct idiomatic errors

ex. of hard to spot equivalence errors:
Software X crashes more often than Software J -
Corrected to:

Software X crashes more often than does Software J

Comparison Idioms:
As many....

Much as.
*Denotes equality between items

So many....

much that
*Denotes a "critical mass" leading to a consequence

More _(insert verb)_

Than
*Denotes inequality between items
Wrong: Pigeons are more numerous as bluebirds
Right: Pigeons are more numerous than bluebirds

Less _(insert verb)_

Than
*Denotes inequality between items

Key: Whenever you see a comparison, make sure it doesn't contain any Equivalence or Idiomatic errors. To spot, remember L.I.P.

L. Logical. Ensure the comparison is logical(not comparing apples to oranges)
I. Idiomatic. Ensure the wording of the comparison is idiomatically correct("as many as", not "as many than")
P. Parallel. Ensure the two sides of the comparison are grammatically parallel(compare clause with clause or noun with noun; Not clause with noun)

Second-Tier Errors are basically errors of style.

*Answers must be as fluent, accurate, and brief as possible while still being grammatically correct.

What are the 3 types of Second-Tier errors?

1) Fluency - sentences should not be awkward, and should fit parameters for natural written English
2) Accuracy - sentences should be clear and avoid ambiguity; They should also not seem to describe illogical scenarios.
3) Brevity - sentences should not be overly wordy; be direct
*F.A.B.

VAMPIRE checklist - #1

1) If the sentence appears to be error free, you should still read all of the choices. Often the answer choices can reveal clues about a potential error simply examine them for differences. The words that vary from answer choice to answer choice signify the places where there may be errors.

VAMPIRE checklist - #2

2) After you have reviewed the answer choices, if you still think the sentence is fine, mark the top answer choice

VAMPIRE checklist - #3

3) If there is an error, start by eliminating all answer choices that make the same mistake as the original sentence. Process of elimination is not useful in every situation, but it is extraordinary helpful in navigating through Sentence Correction problems. Wait to eliminate choices with Second-Tier errors until after all choices with grammatical errors (VAMPIRES) have been eliminated

VAMPIRE checklist - #4

4) If you don't know if there is an error, work through the checklist. Work through them in order: Examine "V"(Verb form) first, then "A" (Agreement), "M" (Modifies), "P" (Pronouns), "I" (Idioms), "R" (Rudimentary Sentence), "E" (Equivalent Elements) , "S" (Second-Tier)

Key: All wrong answers contain fatal flaws that CANNOT be correct

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