loses electrons and energy
The molecule that functions as the reducing agent in a redox or oxidation-reduction reaction
Lipid-soluble signal molecules, such as testosterone, activate
stroma of the chloroplast
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?
entropy of the universe
Whenever energy is transformed, there is always an increase in the
Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of the ATP formed during glycolysis?
Molecules of the ECM, which is capable of transmitting signals between the ECM and the cytoskeleton?
reactions would decrease the entropy within a cell?
harvest photons and transfer light energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll
In the thylakoid membranes, what is the main role of the pigment molecules?
has an increased chemical reactivity; it is primed to do cellular work
A molecule that is phosphorylated
by increasing the percentage of cholesterol molecules in the membrane
one of the ways that the membranes of winter wheat are able to remain fluid when it is extremely cold?
When a cell releases a signal molecule into the environment and a number of cells in the immediate vicinity respond, this type of signaling is
intermediary metabolites enters the citric acid cycle and is formed, in part, by the removal of a carbon (CO2) from one molecule of pyruvate?
considered an open system?
attached to the extracellular matrix
this pigment is best at absorbing light with a wavelength of 700 nm
The reaction-center chlorophyll of photosystem I is known as P700 because
mitochondrial intermembrane space
Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump H+ ions into which location?
G and H + S -
When glucose monomers are joined together by glycosidic linkages to form a cellulose polymer, the changes in free energy, total energy, and entropy are as follows
receptor tyrosine kinases
One of the major categories of receptors in the plasma membrane reacts by forming dimers, adding phosphate groups, then activating relay proteins. Which type does this?
glycolysis and fermentation
occurs in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?
small and hydrophobic
What kinds of molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily?
the stroma into the thylakoid space
In mitochondria, chemiosmosis pumps protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis pumps protons from
breaking the bond between glucose and fructose and forming new bonds from the atoms of water
Sucrose is a disaccharide, composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. The hydrolysis of sucrose by the enzyme sucrase results in
brings a conformational change to each protein
In general, a signal transmitted via phosphorylation of a series of proteins
metabolic pathway is common to both cellular respiration and fermentation?
It is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
statements is correct about diffusion?
Reactants capable of interacting to form products in a chemical reaction must first overcome a thermodynamic barrier known as the reaction's
Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, while respiration releases it
statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration?
oxidize NADH to NAD+
function of both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation is to
The general name for an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein is
breakdown of fatty acids
What is the purpose of beta oxidation in respiration?
They are inversely related (shorter wavelength, more energy)
What is the relationship between wavelength of light and the quantity of energy per photon?
is involved in the catalytic reaction of the enzyme
The active site of an enzyme is the region that
Caffeine is an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase. Therefore, the cells of a person who has recently consumed coffee would have increased levels of
The electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water
Which statement describes the functioning of photosystem II
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is
The animal cell is in an isotonic solution, and the plant cell is in a hypotonic solution
statements correctly describes the normal tonicity conditions for typical plant and animal cells?
phospholipase C & IP3 (inositol phosphate)
An inhibitor of which of the following could be used to block the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum?
Enzymes increase the rate of chemical reaction by lowering activation energy barriers
true of enzymes?
The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the cycle returns ADP, Pi, and NADP+ to the light reactions
best represents the relationships between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle?
Na+ ions moving out of the cell
membrane activities require energy from ATP hydrolysis?
G-protein receptors become activated by
Glucose diffuses slowly through artificial phospholipid bilayers. The cells lining the small intestine, however, rapidly move large quantities of glucose from the glucose-rich food into their glucose-poor cytoplasm. Using this information, which transport mechanism is most probably functioning in the intestinal cells?
Establishes membrane potential, making the cell more negative than the extracellular environment
The sodium potassium pump, pumps out 3 Na+ and pumps in 2 K+. The point of this is?
synthesize simple sugars (G3P) from carbon dioxide
primary function of the Calvin cycle?