type of behaviorism where only directly observable events are considered
John B. Watson
who proposed radical behaviorism?
type of conditioning where a CS is paired with a US to elicit a CR
in classical conditioning, behavior is elicited by a known __________
t/f. Pavlov and Watson took the operant approach to conditioning.
classical conditioning is also referred to as "__________ _______" conditioning
frequency with which a response occurs before a reinforcer is introduced; baseline
rate of responding
how to measure operant conditioning
rate of responding
when a response is followed by a reinforcer, the frequency of response increases
differential reinforcement, successive approximations
two components to shaping
what is it called when some responses are reinforced and other are not?
only the responses increasingly similar to the target behavior are reinforced
when a reinforcer is no longer given
t/f. The rate of responding returns to the operant level after extinction.
operant response made under only one circustance
a response occurring in similar situations
stimulus related to organisms survival
objects/events that acquire reinforcing properties through association with a primary reinforcer
class of secondary reinforcers that have been paired with more than one primary reinforcer
one response is reinforced and then serves as a discriminative stimulus for another response
verbal command where something is demanded and then it is obtained; the obtainment is the reinforcer
verbal behavior that accurately names objects and events in the environment
repeating something verbatim; then being reinforced for such behavior
what is it called when the target behavior is reinforced for every occurrence
what is it called when the target behavior is only sometimes reinforced
fixed interval reinforcement schedule
being reinforced after a specific time period
fixed ration reinforcement schedule
being reinforced after X amount of responses
variable interval reinforcement schedule
being reinforced after an average amount of time
variable ratio reinforcement schedule
being reinforced after an average number of responses
what type of reinforcement increases the resistance to extinction?
which schedule of reinforcement produces the highest rate of responding
which schedule of reinforcement produces the second highest rate of responding
which schedule of reinforcement produces the third highest rate of responding
which schedule of reinforcement produces the fourth highest rate of responding
behavior that results from noncontingent reinforcement
reinforcement that occurs regardless of behavior
whateverthe organism is caught doing during noncontingent reinforcement might be thought to have resulted in the reward when it actually isnt the reason for reward
time out from reinforcement
when an organism is taken from positive reinforcers that are normally available for a specific time period
agreement between two people where one is given something of value from the other if they act in an appropriate way
desirable behavior is reinforced with objects of value to later exchange for other desirable objects or events
Dollard and Miller
what two theorists combined freudian insights with learning theory
what theorist is credited with biofeedback?
drive reduction theory
Hull's theory is considered what type of theory?
stimulus leads to response, which produces a reinforcer, making the association between the S and R stronger
strong stimulus impelling organism into action to reduce it
what is the motivational concept of Dollard and Millers' theory?
stimulus indicating when, where to respond; guides behavior
these are used to reduce a drive; they are elicited by drives and cues
any stimulus that causes drive reduction
in order to learn, one must want something, notice something, do something, and get something.
habit family hierarchy
group of responses elicited by a cue
innate hierarchy of responses
set of responses triggered by certain drive conditions when no learning has occurred
response that has been most successful as bring drive reduction
response with the greatest probability of occurrence in a habit family hierarchy
initial response hierarchy
arrangement of responses in a hierarchy before learning has occurred
resultant response hierarchy
arrangement of responses in a hierarchy after learning has occurred
t/f. If dominant response always reduces drive, learning will still occur.
concept stating that the rearrangement of response hierarchies depends on failure
gradient of reinforcement
series of responses, last response is most reinforced, then second to last, and so on; explains why we take shortcuts
conditioned fear reaction
learning to fear something that was not previously feared
things similar to a specific stimulus elicit same response
type of generalization based on physical similarities
type of generalization based on verbal labels; mediated by language
type of conflict characterized by two equally attractive goals
type of conflict characterized by two negative goals
when one is attracted and repelled to the same goal
double approach-avoidance conflict
when one is both repelled and attracted to two goals
act of substituting one goal for another when the primary goal is not available or feared
aggressing toward a substitute person or object when the actual object of aggression is unavailable or feared
frustration leads to ____________
drive level, completeness of interruption, minor frustrations
three factors determining aggression
first signal system
physical stimuli that precede biological events is known as what?
second signal system
verbal labels that symbolize environmental events
images, words, perceptions that determine subsequent responses
cue-producing responses that solve an immediate problem
cue-producing responses that solve a future problem
experiences never verbally labeled, repressed experiences
two major categories of unconscious material
conscious effort to stop thoughts
painful thought is aborted before entering consciousness
neurotics develop these to reduce fear and anxiety; may include phobias and compulsions
t/f. According to Dollar and Miller, neurosis can be unlearned.
Dollard and Miller believed in what Freudian technique for psychotherapy?
this training situation is concerned with how the hunger drive is satisfied in early childhood
this training situation is concerned with how parents respond to the child's toilet training
early sex training
this training situation is concerned with how the child learns about sex and if they are punished for attempts to masturbate
this training situation is concerned with how the fear of punishment for being aggressive overrides the desire to be aggressive
this theorist focused much on delayed gratification
Bandura and Mischel
these theorists said that behavior is not consistent
the weak correlation between behavior across time, situations, and questionnaires equalling .30
believing human behavior is consistent despite evidence saying it's not
belief that variables are correlated when they aren't
person variables, situational variables, and behavior interact with one another continuously
traits, habits, repressed experiences that cause person to act consistently in similar situations
environmental circumstances in which a person finds him or herself
cognitive social person variables
these variables are how a person will select, perceive, interpret, and use stimuli
this cognitive social person variable determines what is attended to and how it is interpreted; how we see things
this cognitive social person variable constitutes what we think will happen in a given situation
believing that acting a certain way will have a certain consequence
believing that if this event happens, that event will follow
one's ability to engage in effective behavior
what one believes he or she can do
this cognitive social person variable is concerned with whether an action is worth taking
this cognitive social person variable is concerned with how we attain our goals by intrinsic and extrinsic reinforcement
t/f. Bandura and Mischel would say that behavior is teleological.
these describe what a person knows and what they are capable of doing
anything that conveys information such as a book, person, television, demonstration, etc.
this comes from observing the negative consequences of another person's behavior
this comes from observing the positive consequences of another person's behavior
these processes determine what is attended to and therefore what is learned through observation
processes where we either store things as a cognitive picture or store them as words describing the experience
often a delay between when something is learned observationally and when that learning is translated into behavior
motor reproduction processes
processes that determine what behavior a person is capable of doing
these processes are concerned with using incentives to encourage behavior
behavior that is governed by intrinsic reinforcement and punishment; often directed as some future goal
the conscious plannning and intention of action toward future goals
cognitive mechanisms a person uses to escape self-contempt that would usually result when acting contrary to an internalized moral principle
justifying a reprehensible act as a means to a higher purpose
transforming heinous acts into something not so bad; play on words; putting a spin on the meaning
comparing one's own wrong doings with another's whose were worse
displacement of responsibility
saying that authority has control over out behavior
diffusion of responsibility
the whole group is responsible, not just individual
disregard or distortion of consequences
ignoring harm caused by one's wrong doings; far removed from ill effects of bad behavior
looking upon a group of people as subhumans with no feelings, hopes, or concerns
attribution of blame
using something a victim said or did as a cause for one's wrong doing; blaming victim for their own problem
this refers to the ability to tolerate a delay of gratification
expectancies that are a result of faulty overgeneralizations or inaccurate modeling
change client's perceived self-efficacy
goal of psychotherapy
when the observer participates in modeling experience together with the model
imagining a series of anxiety-provoking scenes until no longer produces anxiety
modeling using something other than a person such as a demonstration, film, written instructions
t/f. Bandura believed that humans are autonomous and free to act independently of environmental and personal influences.
belief that human behavior is a result of thoughtful deliberation
belief that human behavior is solely a function of environmental factors, functioning in an automatic and mechanistic way
these determinists believed that personal responsibility is meaningless
this refers to having a number of options available and having the right to exercise them
unintended meeting of persons unfamiliar to each other; unplanned, fortuitous events
t/f. Bandura emphasized the importance of neurophysiology.
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