Chapter 7 Exam 2

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downwellingz

replacement water coming from the top to the bottom of the water column

Ekman transport

transport of water to the left or right of the wind direction

geostrophic flow

driven by gravity and modified by the Coriolis force

upwelling

replacement water coming from the bottom to the top of the water column

B&E

Benguela Current, West Wind Drift

D&E

California Current, Canary Current,

C&D

Gulf Stream, Kuroshio Current

Dynamic topography can be used to compute current direction and velocity.

True

The largest current by volume in the oceans is the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

True

A circular pattern of surface water currents is called a gyre.

True

The Gulf Stream moves water away from the equator; the Benguela Current moves some of this same water back toward the equator.

False

In the northern hemisphere, Ekman transport pushes surface water to the right of the wind direction

True

An eastern boundary current is narrow and swift.

False

Downwelling may be the result of winds blowing parallel to a coastline.

True

Thermohaline circulation is wind-driven.

False

Deep ocean currents often move cold, dense water away from the poles.

True

The Mediterranean Sea has little influence on the water of the Atlantic Ocean.

False

Deep ocean water does travel across the equator.

True

Deep ocean water masses have characteristic temperatures and salinities.

True

The most dense ocean water is Antarctic Bottom Water.

True

All "Deep Water" masses in ocean basins originate in the Atlantic Ocean.

True

The unit of measurement used to describe the rate at which a volume of ocean water moves in a current is a(n):

sverdrup.

Equatorial currents are driven by the:

trade winds.

Surface ocean circulation is driven primarily by _______ and modified by ________.

wind; the Coriolis effect and land

Convection cells driven by the relatively weak winds near the center of gyres are called:

Langmuir circulation

Which of the following is true of surface water circulation near Antarctica?

Two circumpolar currents dominate it, one current that moves water to the east and one current that moves water to the west.

The Sargasso Sea is located in the:

North Atlantic Ocean.

When a meander from the Gulf Stream pinches off and isolates a body of nearshore water, the resulting body of water is called a:

cold core ring.

Identify the mismatched pair.

Labrador Current - Humbolt Current

During winter months, monsoon winds over the Indian Ocean:

flow from land to sea and are dry.

Compared to an eastern boundary current in a gyre, which of the following statements is true for a western boundary current?

All the above statements are true of western boundary currents

Which of the following is a western boundary current?

Brazil Current

Compared to a western boundary current, which of the following statements is true for an eastern boundary current?

Eastern boundary currents are broad and slow.

Which of the following is not an eastern boundary current?

Gulf Stream

Geostrophic circulation is within a gyre driven by:

gravity

Westward intensification is associated with:

All the above statements are associated with westward intensification.

Surface waters are pushed away from land and replaced by nutrient-rich bottom water through:

upwelling.

Strong upwelling occurs in all of the following except:

where deep ocean water currents are formed

Deep ocean water generally has high amounts of:

nutrients and oxygen

The worldwide effects of El Niño include all the following except:

drought in the US Gulf coastal states.

El Niño Southern Oscillation can best be described as:

the relationship between sea surface temperature and high altitude pressure.

The El Niño weather pattern is associated with:

drought and fires in Australia

The Ekman spiral results from friction and the Coriolis effect, while Ekman transport results from:

wind.

In the southern hemisphere, the direction of Ekman transport is:

to the left of the wind direction.

Which type of flow works in opposition to Ekman transport in a gyre?

gravity-driven circulation.

Thermohaline circulation is driven by:

density differences.

Compared to Antarctic Bottom Water, North Atlantic Deep Water is:

warmer, and higher in salinity.

The location where water flows uninterrupted between the Pacific, the Atlantic, and the Indian Oceans is

in the Southern Ocean.

The arrangement of water masses in the southern Atlantic Ocean from the surface to the bottom is:

Antarctic Intermediate Water, North Atlantic Deep Water, Antarctic Bottom Water

Word Analysis. Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the one option that does not fit the pattern.

Gulf of Alaska, Agulhas Current, Peru Current, strong trade winds

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