What was one name for Egypt that originated from "Ham?"
What named did the Greeks give Egypt?
Aegyptos, resulting in Egyptians
What did the Egyptians call themselves, and what does it mean?
Kemit; means "black" after black land
Early civilizations in the Fertile Crescent include (3):
Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia
Much of the area is arid. However, three great _______ bring ________ to the area. These are:
3. Tigris, Euphrates, and the Nile
Areas with enough water were fertile and could produce plentiful crops. Therefore...
In those fertile areas were where the first post-deluvian civilizations arose.
In Isaiah 19, God was telling Egypt's _______. He also said that the Pharaohs were foolish, as were their counselors, to say...what?
2. that the pharaohs were descended from ancient kings, because they weren't
How has God used Egypt to preserve things (2)?
Joseph's dream told him to store up food for 7 years of world-wide famine. Egypt and everyone else were saved. Jesus went to Egypt as a little boy to be kept safe from Herod because God warned his father, Joseph.
What was the most valuable resource after the flood? Why?
Water, because before, it had come up from the ground.
What verse says that government was instituted by God, and what does it say?
Genesis 9:5; God will require a reckoning from man for the life of man.
Fertile Crescent societies displayed large-scale cooperation necessary for _______ and _________. The gov. could coerce by?
2. flood control.
3. cutting off people from water
The people in the Nile Valley did what in order to survive (3)?
1. sowed crops
2. went hunting and fishing
3. built waterowkrs to retain flooding Nile waters
What two things did the Egyptians create by 3000 B.C.?
1. astronomical charts to trace seasons and predict Nile floods
2. writing system to record and coordinate projects; used hieroglyphics
Who was Ra or Re?
in Egyptian mythology, the sun god, who created all life and order
Who was Osiris?
in Egyptian mythology, he was the earth. He was the god of fertilizing, water, vegetation, death, and resurrection.
Ancient Egyptian religion reflected which two great forces?
sun and river
Who was Set?
Osiris' wicked brother, the god of the desert, night, foreignors, and warfare
How did Egyptians explain the root of the cosmic cycle of life and of death and ressurection?
struggle between Osiris and Set
What was instated around 3000 B.C.?
title of Pharaoh, thanks to a warrior prince named Menes who united Egypt. Pharaohs were male or female and ruled for nearly 3000 years from said prince to Cleopatra in 31 B.C.
What did the Egyptians believe about the pharaoh and religion (4)?
the embodiment of the god; ensured sun rising, guaranteed harvest, and commanded Nile to flood
What did the Egyptians believe about the pharaoh and the state (3)?
the embodiment of the state; all officials acted in his name and held their positions at his pleasure; law was the pharaoh's word
Only the pharaoh could express the ultimate truth and justice, the goodness and cosmic force, which is...
The pharaoh was believed to control accesss to the next _______. Only he could be assured of entering the _______. His family and followers could do the same by being taken along to ______ him there.
The pyramids reflect the pharaoh's power in ________ and __________ life.
political and religious
What great monuments were built around 2600 B.C. during the Fourth Dynasty (3)?
1. Great Pyramid of Cheops
When were many of these monument projects constructed? How?
during the flooding of the Nile; peasants were not working and river could be used for transportation
When were the smaller pyramids built?
between 2500 and 2300 B.C. (Fifth and Sixth Dynasties)
What did the smaller pyramids signify?
pharaohs losing some of their power to priests and nobility, or a loss of civilization due to an atrophy of info cause of shorter lifespans
To some extent, the _________ lost _________ as a result of their _________.
As the state became powerful and more effective the pharaoh needed a greater number of ___________ that did...(3)?
rule distant parts of the kingdom
might be rewaded with gifts of land for success
might be able to pass down their office to their descendents
As the state became more powerful...what class arose (1) and what did they do (2)? NOTE: THESE ARE EXAMPLES OF HOW PHARAOHS' POWER DIFFERED FROM BEFORE IN ABOUT 3000 B.C.
1. A class of noblemen ruled in the pharaoh's name but had some independence
2. Earlier, nobles tried to build their tombs close to the pharaohs, but then they started building them in their own territories. They didn't feel they needed the pharoh's patronage in the next world.
3. They believed they could interpret the Ma'at, which used to be that only the Pharaoh could.
Between 2500 and 2300 B.C., a powerful caste of __________ grew who, in many cases, were able to......?
2. oppose the pharaoh's will
What happened around 2300 B.C.?
The Sixth Dynasty came to an end in fragmentation and anarchy.
Under the __________ ____________, a new dynasty of _________ restored order.
1. Middle Kingdom
Around 2300 B.C., however, the pharaoh's never regained their old prestige and power. Name 3 ways in which this is proven:
1. the pharaoh's word was no longer law
2. laws were now written down
3. pharaohs were increasingly dependent on nobility
What happened between 1700 and 1500 B.C. (3)
1. another period of anarchy broke out
2. Egypt was conquered by the Hyksos, who brought horses, chariots, and bows to Egypt
3. the Hyksos were eventually cast out, but Egypt never regained their earlier security
Under the ____ __________ from 1500-1000 B.C., Egypt again knew times of ________ and __________.
1. New Kingdom
In the New Kingdom, because of the threat of invasion, a powerful class of _________ and professional ____________ came to power, along with the omnipresent _________.
Although the facade of older forms and _________ remained, some say that the New Kingdom was very different in spirit from the older Egypt. How (2)?
2. New Kingdom was a stiff, formal bureaucracy; rules rather than tradition
3. Egyptians lost confidence that comes with security from attack
How were Egyptians not good soldiers?
1. military service was unpopular
2. armiments were backward
3. vs. strong armies, they usually lost
Despite not being good soldiers, the image of the pharaoh remained much the same for ______ years. The ________ ___________ had been totally transformed, but Egyptians and forms and styles had endured longer than anything in the ___________ tradition.
2. political realities
Around 3,000 B.C., noblemen would try to have their ________ placed in royal ________. Around the pyramid at ________, which was built in the ______ Dynasty, a smaller tomb of a noblem can be seen. He must have believed that he had improved his chances of entering the _____ _______ by building his tomb so close to the ________.
5. next world
Although the ______ _________ was very long, it was only ________ miles wide. Troops could move easily up and down the river, so rulers could usually keep the country _________.
1. Nile Valley
Egypt was surrounded by ________, so it was ________ from invading armies throughout long stretches of history.
The Egyptians enjoyed blessings of ___________.
The ________ created and shaped Egyptain life.
Finish the timeline.
a. 3000-2500 B.C.
b. 2600 B.C.
c. 2300 B.C.
d. 1700-1500 B.C.
e. 1500-1000 B.C.
a. pharaoh instituted; powerful pharaohs
b. fourth dynasty; obsession with building monuments
c. end of sixth dynasty; Middle Kingdom starts
d. period of anarchy breaks out
e. strength and prosperity; New Kingdom
Because of his so-called powers, Pharaoh held ______ over all of Egypt. He literally _________ all of it like he was a ________, with both __________ and ___________ included.
The social structure of Egypt was like a pyramid, going in this order.
2. priests, nobles and, later, professional soldiers
3. scribes and merchants
Pharaoh controlled this __________ and your _______. Heaven to the Egyptians was like a _________ ____________ ________.
3. happy hunting ground
Egyptians used ________ ______ to cut __________. Their greatest pyramids were built before their ________, which means that they were _________ and ______ before. Also, _______ may have gotten lost.
1. power saws
5. more powerful
Early Egyptologists are convinced that before all the ___________, the early Egyptians worshipped _______ __________. Sometime after their founding, they returned to ________. Point is, evolutionists claim we are getting ______ of more _______.
2. one god
The key in Egyptian religion/mythology is...
What are cataracts? How do they work? Why did Egyptians build them?
Cataracts = sort of dam-like, except they only slow down the river and let a little bit through
Water flows down the river then hits the cataracts; water piles up and squeezes through steadily. The Egyptians built extensive waterworks on the sides of the river to redirect it and irrigate distant parts of land. Also, they could wash it back to the Nile.
Egyptians were the first people to figure out the difference between ___________ and _______ ___________.
Romans 1:18-25 says what?
One of the greatest dangers in world history is to focus on the gifts God gave rather than God. Man should thank God and give him glory. I.e., Egypt is the gift of God, not the Nile.