A system in which voters in a jurisdiction select candidates for an upcoming general election.
A set of electors who are empowered to elect a candidate to a particular office.
the principle that a government must respect all of an individual's legal rights instead of just some or most of them when the government deprives a person of life, liberty, or property.
A clause that is part of the 14th Amendment stating that "no state shall...deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." Protected an individual from not only federal laws, but also at th state level.
1755-1835. U.S. Chief Supreme Court Justice. Oversaw over 1000 decisions, including Marbury v Madison and McCulloch v. Maryland.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
1815-1902. American social activist and early proponent of women's rights. Her Declaration of Sentiments speech delivered in Seneca, NY, in 1848, is often credited with initiating the first organized women's suffrage and women's rights movements in the U.S. Was also an early abolitionist.
1818-1895. American abolitionist, editor, orator, author, statesman, and reformer. Prominent figure in anti-discrimination, eqaul rights reforms.
Movement in the 18th and 19th centuries that sought to make slavery illegal in the U.S. and the British West Indies.
Movement in society to discourage excessive alcohol consumption. Movement in the U.S. succeeded in the passage of the 18th Amendment establishing Prohibition.
A theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. Has been sited as a component fo the Constitution.
The concept of a universal right inherent in the nature of living beings, one that is not contingent upon laws or beliefs.
Divine Right of Kings
A general term used for the ideas surrounding the authoity and legitimacy of a monarch, holding that a monarch derives his or her right to rule from the will of God and not from any temporal authority.
Social contract theory
Broad class of theories implying that people gove up some rights in order to receive or jointly preserve social order.
The best preserved ancient law code created c. 1760 BC. Enacted by 6th Babylonian king. Consisted of a series of laws and their punishments. Was publicly posted in order to keep people from claiming ignorance of the code.
Modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence issued from 529-534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor.
English charter originally issued in 1215. Required king to renounce certain rights, respect certain legal rights, and accept that his actions could be bound by law. Most significant early influence on constitutional law.
Two Treatises Of Government
Published anonymously by John Locke in 1689. First treatise attacks patriarchalism, and the second treatise outlines the theory of civil society based on natural rights and social contract.
A form of social control characterized by strict obedience to the authority of a state or organization, often maintaining and enforcing control through use of oppressive force.
Concept used to describe political systems where a state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private life (Nazi Germany, Facist Italy, hardline-communist regimes).