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Four classes of Organic Compounds

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates

-quick energy
-three classes of carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides

Monosaccharides

-C6H12O6
-isomers of each other (same formula different arrangement)

Disaccharides

-C12H22O11
-Maltose (Glucose + Glucose)
-Sucrose (Glucose + Sucrose)
-Lactose (Glucose + Galactose)

Polysaccharides

-cellulose, starch, chitin, glycogen
-3 or more monosaccharides

Lipids

-consists of one glycerol, and three fatty acids
-saturated (bad) and unsaturated fats (good)
-storage

Proteins

-consists of polypeptides consisting of amino acids
-growth and repair
-enzymes = proteins

Enzymes

-large proteins
-lowers activation energy
-efficiency is affected by temperature and pH

Inducted-fit model

-describes how enzymes work

substrate

-chemical that enzymes work on

Nucleic Acids

-DNA and RNA
-made up of nucleotides
-consists of phosphate, 5 carbon sugar, and nitrogenous base

DNA

-adenine,cytosine,guanine,thymine

RNA

-adenine,cytosine,guanine,uracil

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

-invented first microscope

Plant and Animal Cells

-both have ribosomes and mitochondria

Nucleus

-surrounded by selectively permeable double membrane

Nucleolus

-prominent region inside of the nulceus of a cell that is not dividing
-ribosomes are synthesized here

Ribosome

-site of protein synthesis

Endoplasmic Reticulum

-system of membrane chanels that traverse the cytoplasm
-Rough ER = site of protein synthesis
-Smooth ER connects rough ER to Golgi app., detox, carb. metabolism

Golgi Apparatus

-flattened sacs (pancakes)
-modify, store, and package substances produced in rough endoplasmic reticulum

Lysosome

-site of intracellular digestion
-plant cells do not have lysosomes

Mitochondrion

-site of cellular respiration
-all cells have mitochondria
-contain own DNA and can self-replicate
-have folded inner membranes called cristae

Vacuole

-stores substances for the cell

Vesicles

-tiny vacuoles (storage)

Plastids

-found only in plants and algae
-Chloroplasts
-Leucoplasts
-Chromoplasts

Chloroplasts

-sites of protein synthesis
-type of plastid

Leucoplasts

-store starch

Chromoplasts

-store carotenoid pigments (for coloring)

Cytoskeleton

-complex network f protein filaments that extends throughout the cytoplasm and gives the cell its shape and enables it to move
-microtubules
-microfilaments

microtubules

-thick hollow tubes that make up the cilia, flagella and spindle fibers

microfilaments

-made of protein actin and help support the shape of the cell

plasma membrane

-consists of a phospholipid bilayer

Passive transport

-movement of molecules down a concentration gradient from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
-diffusion or osmosis

Simple Diffusion

-movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration

Facilitated Diffusion

-relies on special protein membrane channels to assist in transporting specific substances across a membrane

osmosis

-diffusion of water across a membrane
-water flows to gradient of high solute concentration

active transport

-movement of molecules against a gradient
-requires ATP

Exocytosis

-(active transport
-active release of molecules from a cell

Pinocytosis

-uptake of large0dissolved molecules (active transport)
-encloses them in vesicles

PHagoctosis

-engulfing of large particles by pseudopods (active transport)

Receptor mediated Endocytosis

-enables cell to take up large quantities of very specific substances

Mitosis

-functions in growth and repair of body cells
-2 daughter cells w/ same chromosome number as the parent cell
-each daughter cell is diploid (2n) just like parent cell

Meiosis

-occurs in sexually reproducing organisms
-produces gametes with half chromosome number of parent cell
-monoploid or haploid (n)

chromosome

-highly coiled and condensed strand of DNA
-replicated chromosome consists of 2 sister chromatids

centromere

-specialized region that holds the two sister chromatids together

Five major stages of cell division

G1, S, G2 (interphase), mitosis, cytokinesis

Interphase

-chromosomes replicate in preparation for cell division
-90% of cells life
-in mitosis and meiosis

Prophase

-2nd stage of mitosis
-strands of chromosomes begin to condense and become visible
-nucleoli disappears
-spindle fibers begin to form in cytoplasm
-centrioles begin to migrate to the poles
-nuclear membrane begins to disintegrate

Metaphase

-chromosomes line up single file located on the equator
-centrosomes are at opposite sides of cell
-spindle fibers run from centrosomes to centromeres of chromosomes

Anaphase

-centromeres of each chromosome separate & spindle fibers begin to pull the sister chromosomes apart

Telophase

-chromosomes cluster at opposite ends of the cell and nuclear membrane reforms
-super coiled chromosomes begin to unravel and return to original state
-nuclear membrane reforms

Cytokinesis

-division of cytoplasm
-in animal cells, cleavage furrow forms
-in plant cells, cell plate forms down the middle of the cell

Meiosis I

-called reduction division
-synapsis and crossing over occur
-during synapsis chromosomes pair up precisly with their homologue so that crossing over can occur
-crossing over is the process in which homologous chromatids exchange genetic material
-homologous chromosomes then separate
-chromosomes line up randomly on equatorial plate
-each resulting gamete is genetically unique

Meiosis II

-sister chromatids separate
-division maintains same number of chromosomes
-completes the goal of meiosis producing four genetically unique cells from mother cell

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