Barron v. Baltimore (1833)
Bill of Rights was NOT applicable to the states.
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
prohibited state-sponsored recitation of prayer in public schools.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
If a defendant cannot afford an attorney the state must provide one. Incorporated the 6th amendment.
Gitlow v. New York (1925)
Began the process of selective incorporation by using the 14th amendment to require states to recognize 1st amendment guarantees of freedom of speech.
Gregg v. Georgia (1976)
upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty, stating that "it is an extreme sanction, suitable to the most extreme of crimes."
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
Created a 3-part "Test." Laws which aid religion must 1) have a "secular purpose", 2) neither advance nor inhibit religion, 3) avoid "excessive government entanglement with religion."
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
ruled that the fourth amendment's protection against unreasonable searches and seizures must be extended to the states as well as to the federal government.
McCleskey v. Kemp (1987)
upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty against charges that it violated the fourteenth amendment because minority defendants were more likely to receive the death penalty than were white defendants.
Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo (1974)
held that a state could not force a newspaper to print replies from candidates it had criticized, illustrating the limited power of the government to restrict the print media.
Miller v. California (1973)
decision that avoided defining obscenity by holding that community standards be used to determine whether material is obscene in terms of appealing to a prurient interest and being patently offensive and lacking in value.
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
all defendants must be informed of legal rights before they are arrested.
NAACP v. Alabama (1954)
Incorporated the right to associate peaceably by deciding that a group did not have to reveal its membership list and thus subject its members to harassment.
Near v. Minnesota (1931)
prevents prior restraint thus selectively incorporates freedom of the press.
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
Established the "actual malice" standard. In cases of libel or slander, public figures must prove that the author had "knowledge of falsity and reckless disregard for the truth."
Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. Federal Communications Commission (1969)
upheld restrictions on radio and television. These are much tighter than those on the print media due to the limited of frequencies available.
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
Identified an implied right to privacy in the U.S. Constitution stating that various portions of the Bill of Rights cast "penumbras" (or shadows) of unstated liberties.
Roe v. Wade (1973)
decision holding that a state ban on all abortions was unconstitutional. The decision forbade state control over abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy, permitted states to limit abortions to protect the mother's health in the second trimester, and permitted states to protect the fetus during the third trimester.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)
states can regulate abortion but not with regulations that impose an "undue burden" on women.
Roth v. United States (1957)
ruling that "obscenity is not within the area of constitutionally protected speech or press."
Schenck v. United States (1919)
declared that government can limit speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils.
School District of Abington Township, Pennsylvania v. Schempp (1963)
held that a Pennsylvania law requiring Bible reading in public schools violated the establishment clause.
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
struck down a law banning the burning of the American flag on the grounds that such action was symbolic speech protected by the first amendment.
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002)
upheld an Ohio policy allowing public vouchers to be used to pay for tuition at religious schools.
Zurcher v. Stanford Daily (1976)
decision holding that a proper search warrant could be applied to a newspaper as well as anyone else without necessarily violating the freedom of press.
District of Columbia v. Heller (2008)
held that the Second Amendment protects an individual right to possess a firearm unconnected with service in a militia, and to use that arm for traditionally lawful purposes , such as self-defense within the home.
Boumediene v. Bush (2008)
Stated that "the laws and constitution are designed to survive, and remain in force, in extraordinary times," and that terrorism suspects held at Guantanamo Bay have the constitutional rights to challenge their detentions in court.
Adarand Constructors v. Pena (1995)
decision holding that federal programs that classify people by race, even for an ostensibly benign purpose such as expanding opportunities for minorities, should be presumed to be unconstitutional.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
decision holding that school segregation was inherently unconstitutional because it violated the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection. This case marked the end of legal segregation in the United States.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
decision that provided a constitutional justification for segregation by ruling that a Louisiana law requiring "equal but separate accommodations for the White and colored races" was constitutional.
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
Court decision ruling that a slave who had escaped to a free state enjoyed no rights as a citizen and that Congress had no authority to ban slavery in the territories.
Hernandez v. Texas (1954)
extended protection against discrimination to Hispanics.
Korematsu v. United States (1944)
Court decision that upheld as constitutional for the interment of more than 100,000 Americans of Japanese descent in encampments during World War II.
Reed v. Reed (1971)
landmark case in which the Supreme Court for the first time upheld a claim of gender discrimination.
Craig v. Boren (1976)
ruling wherein the Supreme Court established the "medium scrutiny" standard for determining gender discrimination.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)
Banned the use of race-based quotas for college admissions but allowed race to be considered as a fairly weighed element in the selection process.
Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)
struck down the University of Michigan's system of undergraduate admissions in which every applicant from an underrepresented racial or ethnic minority group was automatically given 20 points of the 100 needed for admission.
Miller v. Johnson (1995)
held that the use of race as a "predominant factor" in drawing district lines (for voting) should be presumed to be unconstitutional.
Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez (1978)
the Court strengthened the tribal power of individual tribe members and furthered self-government by Indian tribes.
Lawrence v. Texas (2003)
Overturned Bowers v. Hardwick and declared a state law banning sodomy to be an unconstitutional intrusion on the right to privacy.
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 (2007)
held that the use of race in voluntary integration plans, even for the purpose of preventing resegregation, violated the 14th Amendments guarantee of equal protection and therefore was unconstitutional.