What is the most effective class of diuretics?
Where is the site of action for loop diuretics?
ascending loop of henle
What % of sodium is reabsorbed w/ the use of loop diuretics?
What is the second most effective class of diuretics?
Where is the site of action for Thiazide diuretics?
(early) distal tubule
Osmotic diuretics site of action is the ________ _______ __________.
proximal convoluted tubule
CAI diuretics mechanism of action deals directly with the ________ _________ molecule.
What is the most common osmotic diuretic?
What is the funtion of mannitol?
Inhibits the re-absorption of NaCl in the proximal convoluted tubule.
_________ are drugs that increase the rate of urine flow AS WELL AS increasing the excretion of ________.
What is the least effective class of diuretics?
Where is the site of action for potassium spairing diuretics?
(late) distal tubule
Cardiovascular diuretics are not true diuretics in that they do not decrease _________ re-absorption; but rather increase ________ b/c of an increased blood flow.
What is the therapeutic use of cardiovascular diuretics?
Treatment of edema associated w/ congestive heart failure
Aminophyllin, Inamrinone, Milrinone are all __________ diuretics and they are ___________ inhibitors.
Why is dopamine treatment at low levels a good cardiovascular diuretic?
b/c it increases cardiac contractility and output w/ out vasoconstriction @ kidney
What is the best positive ionotrope?
Water and NaCl are ____________ diuretics; water is used for ______ in dogs and NaCL is used for ________ in sheep, calves, and cats.
physiological; compensated interstitial nephritis; urolithiasis
Mannitol*, urea, glycerin, and isosorbide are all ______ diuretics.
osmotic; (* is the best)
How must mannitol be administered?
What drug is indicated for localized edema, constipation, poisoning/drug overdose?
T/F mannitol actually increases renal blood flow.
_________ is indicated for cerebral edema and acute glaucoma b/c it is very effective at pulling fluid from localized edemas.
Furosemide, AKA _______ is a _______ diuretic working on the ________.
lasix; loop (high ceiling); ascending loop of henle;
________ diuretics are AKA as _________ wasting diuretics b/c they block its reabsorption.
What is the mecanism of action for loop diuretics.
they block the Na-K-2Cl symporter
Which diuretic is used to treat hyperkalemia?
Furosemide can cause systemic ________ b/c the NaCl that is normally absorbed in the ascending loop is not and causes a negative lumen potential and H+ is coaxed out in the distal tubule.
Mannitol and _______ are the only true diuretics that increase renal blood flow.
What diuretic is used to treat excercise pulmonary edema?
What is the most effective drug for generalized edema?
Mannitol cannot be used for _________ edema, but furosemide can be used for _________ AND _________ edema.
generalized; generalized and localized
Never use a diuretic drug in a ________ animal.
Which drug is used to treat edema of nephrotic syndrome which is usually refractory to other diuretics.
Patients allergic to sulfonamides should be cautious when using this diuretic.
Ototoxicity, HYPOKALEMIA, hypomagnsemia, acute hypovolemia, CARDIAC ARRYTHMIAS, and SYSTEMIC ALKALOSIS are all side effects of what diuretic?
What class of diuretics are the second most effective and common?
Hydrochlorothiazide and Chlorothiazide are both ________ diuretics.
Why are animals with hypercalcemia not to be given thiazide diuretics?
they increase Ca2+ reabsorption
Why are thiazide diuretics only able to absorb 5% of the NaCl in the distal tubule?
b/c most NaCl re-absorption happens in the PCT.
T/F Thaizide diuretics cause a systemic acidosis b/c they retain H+.
F; they cause a systemic alkalosis similar to loop diuretics
Which diuretic is can be used to treat both central and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus?
T/F thiazide diuretics can be used to treat hypertension.
Treatment of udder edema in cows AND calcium nephrolithiasis can be achieved with this class of diuretics.
What is the drug of CHOICE for central diabetes insipidus?
What is the drug of CHOICE for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus?
Which class of diuretics causes the largest electrolyte imbalance?
Which diuretics are only given orally?
Which diuretics can cause electrolyte imbalances, but not to the degree of loop diuretics?
Which diuretics have a slow and incomplete absorption as well as being bound extensivly to plasma proteins?
Which class of diuretics acutally decrease renal blood flow?
Which class of diuretics must be filtered to reach their site of action? Why?
thiazide; poorly absorbed and distributed (bound to plasma proteins)
Which class of diuretics are filtered AND actively secreted? (to reach their site of action)
Spironolactone, Triamterene, and Amiloride are all _________ diuretics.
Triamtrene and Amiloride are steroid _______ antagonists; they block ______'s receptor in the late distal tubule.
aldosterone (they reverse the effects of aldosterone); aldosterone
Which class of diuretics retains only 2% of sodium in the lumen?
_________ diuretics are desirable in heart failure because they block the effect of __________ which prevents this electrolyte's loss.
Potassium-spairing; aldosterone; potassium
How does blocking the effects of aldosterone at the distal tubule help conserve potassium?
one of aldosterone's actions is to promote the secretion of potassium in the late distal tuble
Spironolactone is a ________ that blocks testosterone receptors and can cause__________.
Why can potassium-spairing diuretics cause a systemic acidosis?
b/c not only do you prevent K+ excretion in the distal tubule you also prevent the secretion of H+ (aldosterone promotes secretion of K+ and H+; potassium spairing blocks aldost.)
Which diuretic has a 2-3 day onset of action?
Which diuretic is readily absorpbed but is so plasma protein bound it has a very delayed onset of action?
If I say "intereferes with sex hormone receptors" you say "________."
Which potassium-spairing diuretics have no effect on aldosterone or its receptors? (2)
Triamterene and amiloride
Which potassium-spairing diuretic act direcly on the sodium channels in the distal tubule?
Triamterene and amiloride
What is the only diuretic that works on the tubular and not lumenal side of the nephron?
The primary use of triamterene and amiloride is treatment of _________.(2)
Where is the site of action for CAI's?
Acetazolamide, dichlorphenamide, and dorzolamide are all ________ diuretics.
CAI's are way more effective than ________ and ________ diuretics, but are ______ used.
loop and thiazide; rarely
B/c CAI's cause the secretion of _________, they can cause a systemic ________ and _________.
HCO3-; acidosis, hypokalemia
_____ ______ ______ is the main use for CAI's b/c it ________.
Open angle glaucomal; decreases the formation of aqueous humor
Which CAI is topical?
What is the cause of central diabetes insipidus?
Desmopressin is ________ potent and has a ________ duration of action that natural ADH.
T/F Restricted sodium intake is useful in CDI and NDI.
What is the drug of choice for NDI? CDI?
thaizide diuretics; desmopressin
NDI is a result of the failure of the kidney to respond to _____.