Chapter 10

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35 terms

AIDS

the name of the late stages of HIV infection

Anticodon

Base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule

Bacteriophage

A virus that infects bacteria

Codon

Three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal

DNA ligase

Catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain

DNA polymerase

Enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain

Double helix

The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape

Exon

A coding region of a eukaryotic gene

HIV

The infectious agent that causes AIDS

Intron

A noncoding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene.

Lysogenic cycle

Phage replication cycle in which the virus does not kill the host

Lytic cycle

A type of viral replication cycle resulting in the release of new phages by death or lysis of the host cell

Messenger RNA

a type of RNA that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein

Molecular Biology

The study of the molecular basis of genes and gene expression

Mutagen

Chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation

Nucleotide

Building block of a nucleic acid

Polynucleotide

A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers

Promoter

A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing mRNA

Prophage

a phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome

Reading frame

The way a cell's mRNA-translating machinery groups the mRNA nucleotides into codons

Retrovirus

An RNA virus

Reverse transcriptase

Enzyme encoded by some RNA viruses that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis

Ribosomal RNA

The most abundant type of RNA

RNA polymerase

An enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription

RNA splicing

The removal of noncoding portions of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis

Start codon

Specific three-nucleotide sequence (AUG) to which an initiator tRNA molecule binds

Stop codon

One of three triplets (UAG, UAA, UGA) that signal gene translation to stop

Sugar-phosphate backbone

The alternating chain of sugar and phosphate to which the DNA and RNA nitrogenous bases are attached

terminator

a special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene

transcription

The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template

Transfer RNA

An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language

Translation

The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule

Translocation

When the RNA carrying the growing polypeptide moves from the A site to the P site on the ribosome

Triplet code

A set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains

Uracil (U)

a single-ring nitrogenous base found in RNA but not DNA

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