What is the Axial Skeleton?
Eighty bones segregated into three regions. Skull, Vertebral Column, and Bony Thorax.
What is the skull?
Consisting of the cranium and the facial bones?
What is the function of facial bones?
Supply the framework of the face, the sense organs, and the teeth. Provides openings for the passage of air and food. Anchor the facial muscles of expression.
What is the function of the Cranium?
Protects the brain and is the site of attachment for head and neck muscles.
What are the bones of the Cranium?
Eight bones. Two parietal, two temporal, front, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid.
What are the parietal bones?
Form most of the superior and lateral aspects of the skull.
What is the occipital bone?
Forms the most posterior and inferior aspects of the skull.
What is the temporal bone?
Forms the most inferior and lateral aspects of the skull.
What is the Ethmoid bone?
Superficial and medial bone of the cranium aside the nasal bone.
What are Wormian bones?
Tiny irregular shaped bones that appear within the sutures of the skull.
What are the Facial bones?
Fourteen bones of which only the mandible and vomer are unpaired. Maxilla, zygomatics, nasal, lacrimals, palatines, and inferior conchae.
What is the Mandible?
The lower jawbone, is the largest and strongest bone of the face. Does not have a pair.
What is the Nasal bone?
Thin medially fused bones that form the bridge of the nose.
What is the Lacrimal bones?
Contributes to the medial walls of the orbit and contain a deep groove called the lacrimal fossa that houses the lacrimal sac.
What is the Palatine Bone?
Two bone plates that form portions of the hard palate, the posteolateral walls of the nasal cavity, and a small part of the orbits.
What is the Vomer bone?
Plow shaped bone that forms part of the nasal septum.
What is the Inferior Nasal Conchae?
Paired, curved bones in the nasal cavity that form part of the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.
What is the Vertebral Column?
Formed from 26 irregular bones (vertebrae) connected n such a way that a flexible cured structure results.
What is the Vertebral Column consisted of?
Cervical Vertebrae, Thoracic Vertebrae, Lumbar Vertebrae, Sacrum, and Coccyx.
How many vertebrae are located in the Cervical Vertebrae?
7 Bones of the neck.
How many vertebrae are located in the Thoracic Vertebrae?
12 bones of the torso.
How many vertebrae are located in the the Lumbar Vertebrae?
5 bones of the lower back.
What is the Sacrum?
Bone inferior to the lumbar vertebrae that articulates with the hip bones.
What are the posteriorly concave curvatures?
Cervical and lumbar. (LORDOTIC)
What are the posteriorly convex curvatures?
Throacic and sacral. (KYPHOTIC)
What are the abnormal spine curvatures?
Scoliosis, Hyperkyphosis, and Hypolordosis.
What is Scoliosis?
Abnormal lateral curve of the spine.
What is Hypokyphosis?
What is Hyperlordosis?
What is the Coccyx?
The tailbone, made up of four in some cases three to five fused vertebrae that articulate with the sacrum.
What is the Sternum?
Results form the fusion of three bones - the superior manubrium, the body, and the inferior xiphoid process.
What are the ribs?
Twelve pair of bones that form the flaring sides of the thoracic cage.
How many true ribs are there?
The superior 1 - 7. Directly attached to the sternum via costal cartilages.
How many false ribs are there?
8 - 10. Attach indirectly to the sternum via costal cartilage.
How many floating ribs are there?
11 - 12. Have no anterior attachment.
What is the Appendicular Skeleton?
Made up of the bones of the limbs and their girdles, pectoral girdles attach the upper limbs to the body truck. Pelvic girdles secures the lower limbs.
What is the Pectoral Shoulder Girdle?
Consists of the anterior clavicles and posterior scapulae. Very vulnerable, open with the shoulder joint.
What is a Clavicle?
The collarbones. Slender, doubly curved long bones lying across the superior thorax. Provdes attachment points for numerous muscles, and act as braces to hold the scapulae and arms out laterally away from the body.
What is the Scapulae?
Triangular, flat bones, lying on the dorsal surface of the rib cage, between the second and seventh ribs. Have 3 triangular boarders.
What does the Upper Limb consist of?
The arm (BRACHIUM), the forearm (ANTEBRACHIUM), and the hand (MANUS).
What does the Arm consist of?
The humerus is the sole bone, articulates with the scapula at the shoulder, and the radius and ulna.
What does the Forearm consist of?
Radius and ulna. They articulate with the humerus and distally with the wrist bones. Articulate with each other proximally and distally by radioulnar joints. Inerosseous membrane connects the two bones along their entire lengths.
What is the Ulna?
Lies medially in the forearm and is slightly longer than the radius. Forms the major portion of the elbow joint with humerus.
What is the Radius?
Lies opposite to the ulna (laterally), and is thin at its proximal end, and widened distally. Aritculates with the capitulum of the humerus. Medially, the head articulates with the radial notch of the ulna.
What is the Hand?
Contains wrist bones (CARPALS), bones of the palm (METACARPALS), and bones of the finger (PHALANGES).
What is the Carpus?
Consists of eight bones. Scaphoid, lunate, triqetral, pisiform proximal. Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate distally.
What is the rhyme that explains the wrist?
Sally Left The Party, To Take Cathy Home. -
What are the Metacarpus?
The palm, five numbered (1-5) metacarpals bones radiate from the wrist to form the palm beyond the carpals.
What are the phalanges?
Contains 14 miniature long bones. Digits are numbered (1-5) beginning with the thumb (POLLEX). Each one has a distal, middle, and proximal part except for the thumb.
What is the Pelvic Girdle?
Formed by a pair of hip bones (OS COXAE, OR COXAL). Together with the sacrum and the coccyx, these bones form the bony pelvis.
What is the Illium?
The top of the coxal bone, large flaring bone.
What is the Ischium?
Forms the posteroinferior part of the hip bone, the thick bone articlates with the ilium and the thinner ramus articulates with the pubis.
What is the Pubis?
The smallest bone that forms the anterior portion of the hip bone that articulates with the ischium and the ilium.
What is the Femur?
The sole bone of the thigh, the largest and strongest bone of the body.
What does the Leg consist of?
The Tibia and fibula.
What is the Tibia?
Receives the weight of the body from the femur and transmits it to the foot.
What is the Fibula?
Stick-like bone with slightly expanded ends located laterally to the tibia.
What is the foot?
Contains tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges. Supports the body weight and acts as a level to propel the body forward in walking and running.
What are the Tarsus of the Foot?
Composed of seven bones that form the posterior half of the foot. Consists of the Calcaneous, Cuboid, Navicular, and Medial/Lateral/Intermediate Cuneiforms.
What is the Calcaneous?
Forms the heel of the foot, carries the talus on its superior surface.
What is the Hallux?
The big toe.