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chapter 17

The minimum daily amount of carbohydrate that supports central nervous system function is about:

150 g.

Before general surgical procedures, oral food and fluids are withheld from patients for at least:

8 to 12 hours.

The use of a low-residue or residue-free diet may be recommended preoperatively for clients:

scheduled for gastrointestinal surgery.

Food present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of general surgery will increase the client's risk for:

aspiration or vomiting.

Protein is important in the postoperative recovery period for tissue synthesis and:

good immune function.

Postsurgical clients should resume oral feedings as soon as possible to:

provide adequate nutrition.

A good guideline for evaluating fluid balance is:

daily weights.

During the postoperative period, the primary source of energy should be:

carbohydrates.

An important function of carbohydrates in the postoperative period is to:

spare protein for tissue synthesis.

A vitamin that is necessary for formation of scar tissue during the healing process is:

vitamin C.

The ideal method for estimating energy needs is:

indirect calorimetry.

After surgery, protein intake may be limited if the patient has impaired:

kidney function.

The amount of dextrose in 3 L of 5% dextrose solution is:

150 g.

1 L 5% dextrose solution provides 50 g dextrose; therefore, 3 L provides 150 g.

true or false

Preoperative or postoperative blood losses may result in a deficiency of:

iron.

Postoperatively, intravenous (IV) fluids provide:

fluids and some energy.

Foods allowed on a clear liquid diet include:

broth, Clear liquids diets do not include dairy products.

Foods allowed on a full-liquid diet include:

full liquid diets only include foods that are smooth and fairly liquid.

Immune-enhancing enteral formulas may be enriched with:

omega-3 fatty acids and arginine.

If a client has had surgery of the head, neck, or throat and can only swallow a limited amount of food, their oral diet should include:

energy- and protein-dense soft foods.

Clients who have undergone radical neck or facial surgery are often fed using:

a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube.

When a client has the most radical form of total gastrectomy (Billroth II), the stomach is excised and the esophagus is joined to the:

jejunum.

In the first few weeks after a gastrectomy, the recommended diet is:

small, frequent meals that can be easily digested.

The physiologic basis for symptoms associated with dumping syndrome is that:

concentrated hyperosmolar fluids draw water into the intestine, decreasing blood volume.

Symptoms of dumping syndrome are most likely to occur after patients consume:

simple carbohydrates.

The recommended diet for patients with dumping syndrome is low in:

sugar.

Nutritional strategies that are helpful for management of dumping syndrome include:

offering fluids between rather than with meals.

If more than 50% of the small intestine is removed, patients may develop:

short-bowel syndrome.

The surgical procedure in which a portion of the colon is attached to an opening in the abdominal wall is called a(n):

colostomy.

The name of the surgical procedure in which the ileum is attached to an opening in the abdominal wall is called a(n):

ileostomy.

The recommended diet for most patients with ostomies is:

normal.

Gastric bypass is recommended only for patients who need to lose more than:

100 lb.

Dietary recommendations for patients with chylous ascites or chylothorax include:

replacement of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) with MCTs.

A burn that causes reddening and blistering with cell death in the dermis is classified as a:

second-degree burn.

Nutrients lost in the initial period following a major burn injury are:

fluids, electrolytes, and protein.

In the first 24 to 48 hours after the burn injury, patients with second- or third-degree burns that cover 15% to 20% or more of their total body surface usually require:

IV fluid and electrolytes.

The IV solution administered during the initial stage of a severe burn injury to prevent hypovolemia is:

lactated Ringer's.

For patients with burns covering more than 20% of total body surface area, resting energy expenditure (REE) exceeds that calculated using the Harris-Benedict equations by about:

50% to 60%.

For patients in the flow phase of metabolic stress, hyperglycemia should be treated by:

use of exogenous insulin.

During the ebb phase following thermal injury, overall metabolism is:

low.

The flow phase following thermal injury is characterized by:

increased nitrogen excretion.

Fat intake in patients who have experienced burns or multiple trauma should be:

12% to 15% of total kilocalories (kcalories or kcal).

Oral intake is generally adequate in adults who have burns covering less than:

25% of the total body surface area.

The preferred type of enteral feeding for burn patients is:

nasoenteric.

After extensive surgery or burns, protein needs are usually:

1.5 to 2.0 g/kg body weight per day.

Conditionally essential amino acids include:

L-arginine and L-glutamine.

Omega-3 fatty acids may be important during periods of metabolic stress because they:

enhance immune function and reduce inflammation.

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