History Midterm Review

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Very few Americans realized that the president who projected an image of vigorous leadership during the 1930s and World War II was confined to a __________.

wheelchair

The tactic used by the United Auto Workers in its attempt to gain bargaining rights with General Motors was the ___-____ strike

sit-down

The first thing that Roosevelt attended to as president was dealing with the national _______ crisis by declaring a "holiday".

banking

Fearing the growth of the Communist Party in America, Congress passed the _____ ___ which made it a crime to advocate [even peaceful] overthrow of the government.
Answer

smith act

What was Franklin Roosevelt's favorite New Deal agency?

CCC

Herbert Hoover called ______ _ ____ an American "birthright," the embodiment of the spirit of "enterprise, of independence, and of...freedom."

Owning a Home

Columbia River Basin Project

The Columbia River Basin Project authorized the construction of more than fifteen dams in the Pacific Northwest to provide hydroelectric power, facilitate irrigation, [and help flood control] -- just one part of Roosevelt's "public works revolution".

The New Deal concentrated power in the hands of which branch of the government?

the executive

Most historians argue that a recession reoccurred in 1937 because Roosevelt:

cut government spending.

Comservative businessmen and politicians formed the American Liberty League in 1934 to:

protest FDR's progressive policies.

Was social security a first or second new deal program?

Second

During the 1932 election, Franklin Roosevelt called for a balanced government and criticized Hoover for excessive government spending. True or False?

True

What statement best describes Huey Long, Upton Sinclair, and Dr. Francis Townsend?
Answer

They all challenged Roosevelt to move further left of center.

Which "alphabet agency" program employed white-collar workers and professionals, including doctors, writers, and artists?

WPA

Liberalism during the New Deal came to be understood as:

An active government to uplift less fortunate members of society.

Which two New Deal programs were among those the Supreme Court ruled to be unconstitutional?

AAA and NRA

In the 1930s, which group(s) welcomed members of all varieties and became the focal point for the most expansive definitions of freedom in the United States?

The CIO and the Communist Party

During the New Deal, African Americans:

were mostly excluded from Social Security benefits.

The CCC:

employed jobless young men in conservation
projects

The NLRB:

federal guarantee of the right to unionize and collective bargaining

AAA:

created an active federal role in agricultural planning and price setting

FERA:

Provided direct relief to states to fund work projects

In what order did the following events happen?

A. Some Native American tribal sovereignty is reestablished with passage of the Indian Reorganization Act.

B. The first federally mandated "minimum wage" is established by the Fair Labor Standards Act.

C. FDR announces a "bank holiday", closing all banks until they can prove solvency.

D. The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck catches the mood of the Depression in America.

1) FDR announces a "bank holiday", closing all banks until they can prove solvency.

2) some Native American tribal sovereignty is reestablished with passage of the Indian Reorganization Act.

3) The first federally mandated "minimum wage" is established by the Fair Labor Standards Act.

4) The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck catches the mood of the Depression in America.

The largest surrender in American military history occurred at the ___________, after the Japanese took over that island-nation.

Phillipines

Among the 25,000 Native Americans who fought in World War II were the Navajo "____-_______" who manned radios in the Pacific theatre using their language, which the Japanese could never decipher.
Answer

Code-Talkers

The ____-____ riots involved U.S. sailors, aided by policemen, attacking Mexican American youths whose flamboyant clothing was seen as an affront to what Americans were fighting for.

Zoot Suit

The meeting of representatives from 45 nations at _______ _____ established a new international economic system.

Bretton Woods

Until 1941, __ percent of Japan's oil supply came from the United States.

Eighty

To Franklin D. Roosevelt, the ____ ________ expressed deeply held American values worthy of being spread worldwide.

Four Freedoms

More than 2000 Americans [the official total was 2403] were killed when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941; this official number of deaths is greater for a single event than on any other single day in American history. True or False?

False

During the war in eastern Europe, Germany's advance into the Soviet Union was reversed at ....., where some 2 million soldiers and civilians perished.

Stalingrad

Whose work offered an intellectual justification for opponents of active government, laying the foundation for the rise of modern conservatism?

Friedrich Hayek's "The Road to Serfdom"

Men like Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh, and Father Francis Coughlin were members of the:

America First committee, an isolationist group.

What was not one of the Four Freedoms expressed by FDR?

Freedom of Enterprise

According to Gunnar Myrdal, what was America's dilemma?

a conflict between American values and American racial policies

Which statement about the Japanese-American internment is FALSE?

Once the FBI did background checks on individuals they were free to leave the internment camps and return home.

Many Americans were convinced by ...... that a policy of isolationism was necessary.

Senator Gerald Nye's report

Who was the only member of Congress to vote against a declaration of war on Japan after Pearl Harbor? (Hint: the same person who voted against WWI.)

Jeanette Rankin

By threatening a massive march on Washington, DC, civil rights organizer A. Philip Randolph:

pressured FDR into issuing Executive Order 8802.

Women working in defense industries during the war:

Were told by the mass media that they were fighting for freedom.

At Yalta, the "Big Three" allied leaders met for a summit. What was finally agreed to here?

the Soviet Union would soon enter the Pacific war against Japan

What was the "Double-V" campaign?

an attempt to gain both a military victory and an end to segregation in America

More than ...... persons died due to atomic bombs being dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Answer

210,000

The turning point of the war in Europe [which many historians consider THE most important battle of the war] was:

Battle of Stalingrad

The largest amphibious operation in history opens a second front in Europe was:

D-Day

The Royal Air Force resists German bombings of London and other population centers

Battle of Britain

The turning point of the war in the Pacific [and the first sea battle where ships never encountered each other]

Battle of Coral Sea

in what order did these events occur?

A. The largest amphibious invasion in history begins on Normany beaches on June 6--"D Day".

B. The United States becomes the first (and only) nation to use atomic weapons on live targets.

C. The United States "officially" enters WWII by declaring war on Japan.

D. The Second World War "officially" begins when Germany invades Poland.

1) The Second World War "officially" begins when Germany invades Poland.

2) The United States "officially" enters WWII by declaring war on Japan.

3) The largest amphibious invasion in history begins on Normany beaches on June 6--"D Day".

4) The United States becomes the first (and only) nation to use atomic weapons on live targets.

While only an analyst at the American embassy in Moscow, George Kennan's ____ ________ carried much more historical significance as it laid the foundation for Truman's policy of communist containment.

Long Telegram

In 1952, for the first time since record keeping began seventy years earlier, no _________ took place in the United States.

Lynchings

Generally speaking, economics and geopolitical interests motivated American foreign policy, but the language of _______ was used to justify its actions.

Freedom

The ______ _______, begun in June, 1948 and lasting for eleven months, made it clear that Truman was determined to deny the Soviet Union any victories in the Cold War.

Berlin Airlift

Wisconsin Senator Joe McCarthy's Red-baiting downfall came with the nationally televised ____-________ hearings in 1954.

Army-McCarthy

_______________ became a catch-all description of the political philosophy of those on the other side from America in the Cold War -- both Left (communist) and Right (fascist).

Totalitarianism

The Soviet Union had complete control over East Berlin, but control of West Berlin was divided between England, France, and the United States. True or False?

True

What program was in effect to bring a New Deal for Europe?

The Marshall Plan

What piece of American legislation stated that union leaders had to swear an oath that they were not communists?

Taft-Hartley Act

Chinese troops threatened to enter the Korean Conflict, but never did. True or False?

False

One of the reasons that the Soviet Union felt justified in making demands upon the western world was because of the enormous sacrifice it made to World War II, which was estimated at ...... million dead [and probably a lot more].

20

Who led the abstract "New York School" of painters, which was covertly supported by the C.I.A. as a weapon in the cultural Cold War?

Jackson Pollack

In "Who is Loyal to America?" historian Henry Steele Commager:

believed that the contemporary narrow definition of loyalty denied freedom of thought.

Senator Joe McCarthy originally announced that he had a list of 205 Communists who worked for ...... -- numbers that constantly changed and names that were never revealed.

The State Department

Which idea best describes what NSC-68 called for?

a permanent military buildup and a global application of containment

The Freedom Train:

was a traveling exhibition of 133 historical documents.

What reason did the "Hollywood Ten" give for not cooperating with the HUAC hearings?

They felt the hearings were a violation of the First Amendment

Organized labor emerged as a:

major supporter of the foreign policy of the Cold War.

In 1948, Eleanor Roosevelt chaired a United Nations committee to draft what?

the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The Taft-Hartley act was a part of the "Fair Deal". True or False?

False

Who were the most common victims of McCarthyism?

virtually anyone who refused to cooperate with investigations

HUAC

congressional committee charged with seeking out disloyalty in America

SEATO

alliance which will soon drag the U.S. into the quagmire of Vietnam

CENTO

alliance formed to stop communist aggression in the Middle East

NATO

alliance between the U.S., Canada, and numerous western European countries

Identify the correct sequence of Cold War events:

A) NATO organizes to counter European Soviet threat, eventually countered by the Warsaw Pact.

B) President Truman presents the "domino theory" to Congress, and announces his Truman Doctrine.

C) Reacting to the threat perceived in the Marshall Plan, Stalin institutes a blockade of Berlin.

D) Sen. Joseph McCarthy begins an anti-Communist "Witch Hunt", ruining thousands of innocent Americans' lives.

1) President Truman presents the "domino theory" to Congress, and announces his Truman Doctrine.

2) Reacting to the threat perceived in the Marshall Plan, Stalin institutes a blockade of Berlin.

3) NATO organizes to counter European Soviet threat, eventually countered by the Warsaw Pact.

4) Sen. Joseph McCarthy begins an anti-Communist "Witch Hunt", ruining thousands of innocent Americans' lives.

Propaganda campaigns launched by big business linked unionism and socialism, and began to offer "company unions" and what they called the "________ ____" whose essence was the open shop.

American Plan

The French observer Andre Siegfried identified that Americans considered their _________ __ ______ a sacred acquisition, which they would defend at any price.

standard of living

In an era when speaking one's mind could get one jailed, deported, or worse, Supreme Court Justices Oliver Wendell Holmes and most dramatically _____ ________ finally began to speak up for a true "freedom of speech" in the 1920s.

Louis Brandeis

President Calvin Coolidge believed that the chief business of the American people was ________.
Answer

Business

Railroads were to the late nineteenth century what ___________ were to the 1920s.

Automobiles

American novelists like F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway were part of the ____ __________, which decried the repressive and materialistic culture of post-WWI America.

Lost Generation

Tennessee high school teacher John Scopes was acquited of illegally teaching evolution due to the brilliant defense of Clarence Darrow. True or False?

False

There were many forces that predisposed potential Ku Klux Klan members to accept its exclusionary message without much analysis. These forces included all of the following EXCEPT:

the birth of the Harlem Renaissance.

Which of these was NOT a member of the "celebrity culture" of the 1920s?

Jackie Robinson

Leo Frank

Jewish factory manager [wrongly] accused of murdering a gentile girl [and lynched by a mob]

Robert and Helen Lynd

authored "Middletown", a classic study of typical middle class America

Clara Bow

star of silent motion pictures

Jack Dempsey

heavyweight boxer [nicknamed the "Manassa Mauler", from Manassa, CO]

What city was considered the "capital" of black America in the 1920s?

Harlem

For American feminists in the 1920s, "freedom" meant:

the right to chose their lifestyle.

In a case which drew international outrage, who was convicted and eventually executed in a controversial criminal trial?

Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti

The 1925 trial of John Scopes in Tennessee for teaching evolution in a public school illustrated a

secular modernism and Christian fundamentalism.

What issue became the focus of the 1928 presidential race?

the fact that Democratic candidate Alfred Smith was Catholic

What is NOT an example of the economic diplomacy of the 1920s designed to improve American business?

rejecting the League of Nations

While still something of an American ideal in the 1920s, "Cultural pluralism":

described a society that gloried in ethnic diversity.

A sure indicator of the conservative and repressive mood of 1920s American society was the Hays Code, which:

outlined inappropriate material for films.

Both Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller amassed huge fortunes through ________ integration.

vertical

The spread of ___________ was essential to industrial and urban growth.
Answer

electricity

The _________ made possible the second industrial revolution in America.
Answer

railroad

A combination of corporations to establish a monopoly is called:

a trust.

Republican economic policies in the latter 1800s strongly favored:

eastern industrialists and bankers.

Somewhat to his surprise, who ran for mayor of New York City in 1886 on a labor ticket?

Henry George

Henry George rejected the traditional equation of liberty with:

ownership of land.

What event is generally considered as marking the end of the American Indian Wars?

the Massacre at Wounded Knee

What did William Graham Sumner believe social classes owed each other?

nothing at all

One of the reasons that the Great Strike of 1877 was important is that:

it underscored the tensions between labor and industrialists produced by the rapid industrialization of the time.

What was NOT a cause for the explosive economic growth experienced by the United States between 1870 and 1890?

low tariffs

The American working class:

lived in desperate conditions.

Workers generally welcomed the courts' decisions on industry True or False?

False

Who insisted that freedom and spiritual self-development required an equalization of wealth and power and that unbridled competition mocked the Christian ideal of brotherhood?

Walter Rauschenbusch

An example of what economist and social historian Thorstein Veblen meant by "conspicuous consumption" is:

Mrs. Bradley Martin's costume ball.

The Knights of Labor were directly responsible for the violence that took place at Haymarket.

False

Even though the government declared a new "peace policy" in 1869 toward Native Americans, between then and 1890 there was actually little change in the warfare methodology of earlier times. True or False?

True

The the decades surrounding 1900, __________ became the world's center for iron and steel manufacturing.

Pittsburgh

_______ _____ was a political "boss" who, although corrupt, provided important services to New Yorkers.

William Tweed

The _____ ___ divided tribal lands into parcels of land for Indian families.

Dawes Act

Identify the correct sequence of "Gilded Age" events from 1st (earliest) to 4th (latest):

In order to facilitate train travel, railroad company institute "time zones".

Most of the 7th Cavalry under George Custer dies at the Little Big Horn.

Jacob Riis' How the Other Half Lives uses photography to document urban poor.

The Haymarket riot and massacre discredits the Knights of Labor.

1) Most of the 7th Cavalry under George Custer dies at the Little Big Horn.

2) In order to facilitate train travel, railroad company institute "time zones".

3) The Haymarket riot and massacre discredits the Knights of Labor.

4) Jacob Riis' How the Other Half Lives uses photography to document urban poor.

"robber barons"

men wielding power without caring about its effect on the marketplace

Social Darwinism

"survival of the fittest" applied to social classes

Social Gospel

believed that equality of wealth was required for freedom

Tweed Ring

a corrupt political machine

The _________ made remarkable efforts to unite black and white small farmers on a common political and economic program.

Populists

______ _______ used the idea of "freedom of contract" as an argument against judges' interfering with workers' right to organize unions.

Samuel Gompers

Alfred T. Mahan argued that:

for the United States to be a great power, it was imperative that it build a strong navy.

What stated that the Constitution did not fully apply to the territories recently acquired by the United States?

Insular Cases

The Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU):

argued that politics was the place for women.

The Spanish American War Lasted only ____ months and resulted in only ____ _______ battle deaths

The war lasted only four months and resulted in less than four hundred battle deaths.

The Immigration Restriction League called for reducing immigration by:

barring the illiterate.

The People's Party emerged as an urban, middle-class vehicle for social, economic, and political reform. True or False?

False

Booker T. Washington

was an astute leader who appealed to whites with a policy of accommodation.

Farmers believed that their plight derived from all of the following EXCEPT:

the free and unlimited coinage of silver.

For "native" Americans, the difference between them and the "new" immigrants was:

that the new immigrants were not from northern and western Europe.

The "money question" in post-Civil War America:

refers to the fight to increase the money supply by minting silver money.

The Supreme Court decision United States v. Wong Kim Ark ruled that:

the Fourteenth Amendment gave Asians born in the United States citizenship.

Which institution was hardest hit by the "Redeemers" once they assumed power in the South?

public schools

National Guard troops that were ordered by the Illinois governor to help suppress the Pullman Strike in 1894 refused to act against the striking workers for whom they felt sympathy. True or False?

False

Former slave ___ _. _____ became a crusader against a sharp rise in lynchings of Blacks in the 1880s and 1890s.

Ida B Wells

Campaigning for the presidency in 1896, _______ ________ _____ expressed the Populists desire to monetize silver by stating "You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold."

William Jennings Bryan

After the United States evicted the Spanish, Filipino nationalist ______ _________ led a bloody insurrection against American rule.

Emilio Aguinaldo

Journalists who worked for newspapers like William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal who sensationalized events to sell papers were called "______" journalists.

yellow

Identify the correct sequence of imperialistic actions:
Answer
A) Admiral Alfred Mahan argues that the U.S. should have a large fleet.
B) The Rev. Josiah Strong preaches that Americans should help "inferior races".
C) Philippine nationalists begin resisting American rule, ending in the deaths of 20% of Filipinos.
D) Claiming to be coming to the aid of Cuban nationalists, the U.S. declares war on Spain.

B) The Rev. Josiah Strong preaches that Americans should help "inferior races".
A) Admiral Alfred Mahan argues that the U.S. should have a large fleet.
D) Claiming to be coming to the aid of Cuban nationalists, the U.S. declares war on Spain.
C) Philippine nationalists begin resisting American rule, ending in the deaths of 20% of Filipinos.

A stauch conservation ally of President Roosevelt, ____ ____ founded the Sierra Club to help preserve the public lands that had been set aside.

John Muir

Identify the correct sequence of Progressive Era events:
A) More than 20 miners, women, and children are killed in the "Ludlow Massacre" by Colorado National Guardsmen.

B) Ida Tarbell documents the predatory practices of the Standard Oil Company.

C) In New York City, a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company kills 146 garment workers.

D) President William McKinley is assassinated, placing Teddy Roosevelt in the White House.

1st President William McKinley is assassinated, placing Teddy Roosevelt in the White House.

2nd Ida Tarbell documents the predatory practices of the Standard Oil Company.

3rd In New York City, a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company kills 146 garment workers.

4th More than 20 miners, women, and children are killed in the "Ludlow Massacre" by Colorado National Guardsmen.

Upton Sinclair

tried to expose worker exploitation, but gave America an upset stomach instead

Ida Tarbell

documented the predatory practices of America's largest oil producer

Lincoln Steffens

detailed the graft of big city bosses and machines

Theodore Dreiser

an exposé of prostitution among Chicago's urban poor

The Progressive movement drew much of its strength from:

the middle-class.

A frank acceptance of the benefits of bigness, coupled with the intervention of government to counteract its abuses best describes the philosophy behind:

New Nationalism.

Newspaper and magazine writers, who exposed the ills of industrial and urban life, fueling the Progressive movement, were known as:

Muckrakers.

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